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Science

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Neural Circuits, Neuron, Biology, Nervous System, Roundworm, C Elegans, transgenic actuators, gene expression

Biology’s “Breadboard”

Understanding how the nervous system of the roundworm C elegans works will give insights into how our vastly more complex brains function and is the subject of a paper in Nature Methods.

Medicine

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RNA, polypeptide, Cancer, Gene, cellular processes, Cell And Tumour Biology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Non-coding RNA, DNA, Genome, Protein Coding, Muscle Regeneration, cellular function

Research Reveals the Importance of Long Non-Coding RNA Regulating Cellular Processes

Scientific research over the past decade has concentrated almost exclusively on the 2 percent of the genome’s protein coding regions, virtually ignoring the other 98 percent, a vast universe of non-coding genetic material previously dismissed as nothing more than ‘junk.’ Now, a team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) reveals that one type — called long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) — may be critically important for controlling cellular components in a tissue-specific manner. Published online today in the journal Nature, the new research points to an lncRNA’s key role in helping control processes related to muscle regeneration and cancer.

Medicine

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Cardiac, Stem Cell, Synthetic

Synthetic Stem Cells Could Offer Therapeutic Benefits, Reduced Risks

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Researchers have developed a synthetic version of a cardiac stem cell. These synthetic stem cells offer therapeutic benefits comparable to those from natural stem cells and could reduce some of the risks associated with stem cell therapies.

Medicine

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HIV, AIDS, Interferon Type I, CD4 T cell, Immune activation, Helper T Cells, Cd8 T Cells

Protein That Activates Immune Response Harms Body’s Ability to Fight HIV

In findings they call counterintuitive, a team of UCLA-led researchers suggests that blocking a protein, which is crucial to initiating the immune response against viral infections, may actually help combat HIV.

Medicine

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Linking Human Genome Sequences to Health Data Will Change Clinical Medicine, Says Penn Expert

The value of intersecting the sequencing of individuals’ exomes (all expressed genes) or full genomes to find rare genetic variants -- on a large scale -- with their detailed electronic health record (EHR) information has “myriad benefits, including the illumination of basic human biology, the early identification of preventable and treatable illnesses, and the identification and validation of new therapeutic targets,” wrote Daniel J. Rader, MD, chair of the Department of Genetics, in the Perelman School of Medicine at Penn.

Medicine

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Embryonic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, Cardiomyocytes, Pacemaker Cells, Pacemaker, Israel, Biological Pacemaker, Cardiovascular

Canadian-Israeli Development: A New Biological Pacemaker

Using human embryonic stem cells to create a type of cardiac cells known as sinotrial (SA) node pacemaker cells, researchers have developed a biological pacemaker that overcomes many of the limitations of electrical pacemakers.

Medicine

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Cancer, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Childhood Cancer, Chemotherapy, Radiation

Study Potentially Explains Vulnerability of Young Cancer Patients to Treatment Toxicities

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Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute say they have discovered a potential explanation for why brain and heart tissues in very young children are more sensitive to collateral damage from cancer treatment than older individuals.

Medicine

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Cancer Biology, mRNA, Leukemia, obesity-gene, FTO gene, Cancer

Obesity-Associated Protein Could Be Linked to Leukemia Development

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Cancer researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) have found an obesity-associated protein’s role in leukemia development and drug response which could lead to more effective therapies for the illness.

Medicine

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Cancer, Precision Medicine

New Precision Medicine Tool Helps Optimize Cancer Treatment

Columbia University researchers have created a user-friendly computational tool that rapidly predicts which genes are implicated in an individual’s cancer and recommends treatments.

Medicine

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T-Cell, tissue resident memory t-cells, Pediatric Cancer, Yale Cancer Center, Immune Cells

Researchers Identify Heterogeneity of Tissue Resident Memory T Cells as Targets of Checkpoint Therapies

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Researchers at Yale Cancer Center and Yale Medicine have identified the critical target of new immune-checkpoint therapies: subsets of immune cells called tissue resident memory (TRM) T cells. In the same research, scientists also found that individual metastatic cancer lesions contain unique sets of TRM cells.







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