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Science

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Brain, Evolution, Genetics, Birds, Reptiles, Intelligence

Birds and Primates Share Brain Cell Types Linked to Intelligence

In a new study, published this week in the journal Current Biology, scientists from UChicago show that some neurons in bird brains form the same kind of circuitry and have the same molecular signature as cells that enable connectivity between different areas of the mammalian neocortex.

Medicine

Science

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Aging, Inflammation, Joint, Osteoarthritis, Genetics

Scientists Find Key Proteins Control Risk of Osteoarthritis During Aging

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A study from scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) explains why the risk of osteoarthritis increases as we age and offers a potential avenue for developing new therapies to maintain healthy joints.

Medicine

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long coding RNAs, selfish genes, Vascular Disease, Heart Disease, Nature Medicine, Cholesterol

Newly Discovered Gene May Protect Against Heart Disease

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Scientists have identified a gene that may play a protective role in preventing heart disease. Their research revealed that the gene, called MeXis, acts within key cells inside clogged arteries to help remove excess cholesterol from blood vessels.

Science

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Proteomics, Zoology, protein analysis, Evolutionary Biology

Longer-Lived Animals Have Longer-Lived Proteins

Researchers studying half-lives of evolutionarily related proteins in different species uncovered a link between species lifespan and protein lifespan.

Science

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Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Opthalmalogy, Stem Cell, Drug Discovery

In Effort to Treat Rare Blinding Disease, Researchers Turn Stem Cells into Blood Vessels

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People with a mutated ATF6 gene have a malformed or missing fovea, severely limiting vision. UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers first linked ATF6 to this type of vision impairment. Now the team discovered that a chemical that activates ATF6 converts patient stem cells into blood vessels.

Medicine

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Regenerative Medicine, Cardiology, Genetics, Cell Biology, Cardiomyocytes, Fribroblasts, heart attacks

Study Maps Molecular Mechanisms Crucial for New Approach to Heart Disease Therapy

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In this study, published in Cell Reports, two labs at UNC and a group at Princeton University reprogrammed ordinary cells called fibroblasts into new and healthy heart muscle cells, and recorded changes that appear to be necessary for this reprogramming.

Medicine

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Entomology, Insects, animal biology, Mammals, Circadian Clock, circadian fluctuations, Body Temperature, Metabolism, Sleep, body temperature and sleep, sleep and health, Genes & Development, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Research & Development, Research, Pediatrics

Understanding a Fly’s Body Temperature May Help People Sleep Better

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In findings that one day may help people sleep better, scientists have uncovered the first molecular evidence that two anciently conserved proteins in the brains of insects and mammals share a common biological ancestry as regulators of body temperature rhythms crucial to metabolism and sleep. Researchers publish their data in the journal Genes & Development.

Science

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Human Evolution, cultural evolution, cultural anthropology, Linguistics, Genetics, Phylogenetics, Computer Science, Psychology, Economics, Biology

Interdisciplinary Approach Yields New Insights Into Human Evolution

Vanderbilt biologist Nicole Creanza takes an interdisciplinary approach to human evolution--both biological and cultural--as editor of special themed issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

Science

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Aging, rDNA, Stem Cells, Drosophila, Molecular Biology, University Of Michigan, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Immortality

Clues to Aging Found in Stem Cells’ Genomes

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In fruit flies, repeating genetic elements shrink with age, but then expand in future generations, a resurgence that may help explain how some cells stay immortal.

Science

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Extinction, Extinct Species, moa, New Zealand, DNA, Ancient Dna, Environment, prehistory, Ecosystem, Ecology, History

Middle Earth Preserved in Giant Bird Dung

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While the giant birds that once dominated New Zealand are all extinct, a study of their preserved dung (coprolites) has revealed many aspects of their ancient ecosystem, with important insights for ongoing conservation efforts.







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