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Medicine

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Antibiotic, Antimicrobial Peptides, Cholera, Vibrio cholerae, Biochemistry, Journal of Biological Chemistry

An Unusual Form of Antibiotic Resistance in Pandemic Cholera

Researchers at the University of Georgia have now shown that the enzyme that makes the El Tor family of V. cholerae resistant to those antibiotics has a different mechanism of action from any comparable proteins observed in bacteria so far. Understanding that mechanism better equips researchers to overcome the challenge it presents in a world with increasing antibiotic resistance. The results of this research are published in the Dec. 22, 2017 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

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Perspective: Let’s Put the ‘Ph’ Back in Science PhD Programs

Today’s graduate biomedical science education system is in need of comprehensive reform, two researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health argue in a new paper.

Medicine

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National Eye Institute (NEI), National Institutes Of Health (NIH), Discovery, Stem Cell, Therapy, Eye Disease, Closer, Clinic, Age Related Macular Degeneration, AMD

NIH Discovery Brings Stem Cell Therapy for Eye Disease Closer to the Clinic

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Scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health, report that tiny tube-like protrusions called primary cilia on cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)—a layer of cells in the back of the eye—are essential for the survival of the retina’s light-sensing photoreceptors. The discovery has advanced efforts to make stem cell-derived RPE for transplantation into patients with geographic atrophy, otherwise known as dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the U.S. The study appears in the January 2 Cell Reports.

Medicine

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Kidney Stones, nobel prize in Chemistry, Ion Channel, nature structural and molecular biology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, National Institutes Of Health (NIH), cryo-electron microscopy, cryo-EM, trpv5, econazole, kidney stone surgery, kidney stone treatment, Proteins, kidney proteins, Pharmacology, pharmacology therapeutics

Zooming in on Protein to Prevent Kidney Stones

Researchers have applied Nobel prize-winning microscope technology to uncover an ion channel structure that could lead to new treatments for kidney stones. In a recent study published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, researchers revealed atomic-level details of the protein that serves as a passageway for calcium across kidney cell membranes.

Science

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Cancer, Disease, Mathematcis, Mathemagic, Mathematical Modeling, Cornell University

Randomness a Key in Spread of Disease, Other ‘Evil’

Working with a simple mathematical model in which chance plays a key role, researchers Steve Strogatz and Bertrand Ottino-Loofler calculated how long it would take a bacterial infection or cancer cell to take over a network of healthy cells. The distribution of incubation times in most cases, they contend, is close to “lognormal” – meaning that the logarithms of the incubation periods, rather than the incubation periods themselves, are normally distributed.

Medicine

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Healthcare, Medicine & Health, Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, Death & Dying, health professional, Public Health, Clinical Trail

Review Lays out Recommendations, Calls for Research to Improve Post-Hospitalization Sepsis Outcomes

Half of sepsis survivors never fully recover; Dr. Derek Angus lays out an approach to change that.

Medicine

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Peter Campochiaro, Macular Degeneration, Macular Edema, eye, Blindness

Diabetic Blindness Caused and Reversed “Trapped” Immune Cells in Rodent Retinas

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Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered a cell signaling pathway in mice that triggers vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion – diseases characterized by the closure of blood vessels in the retina, leading to blindness. In experiments that suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eye, researchers were able to re-establish normal blood flow in the retina, offering a potential means of stalling or even reversing diabetes-related blindness.

Medicine

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Metabolic Disorder

Detecting Pompe Disease with More Accuracy Key to Urgent Intervention

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Researchers identified a new, more sensitive screening test to recognize Pompe disease, a metabolic disorder affecting cellular processing of glycogen in numerous tissues of the body.

Medicine

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Breast Cancer, Metastasis, Macrophage

Immune Cells Play Key Role in Early Breast Cancer Metastasis Even Before a Tumor Develops

Mount Sinai researchers have discovered that normal immune cells called macrophages, which reside in healthy breast tissue surrounding milk ducts, play a major role in helping early breast cancer cells leave the breast for other parts of the body, potentially creating metastasis before a tumor has even developed, according to a study published in Nature Communications.

Medicine

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HIV, AIDS, CAR T cell, Stem Cells, chimeric antigen receptor, Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell, Immunity, HSPC, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy Using CAR T-Cells Could Provide Long-Term Protection Against HIV

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Through gene therapy, researchers engineered blood-forming stem cells (hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, or HSPCs) to carry chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) genes to make cells that can detect and destroy HIV-infected cells. These engineered cells persisted for more than two years







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