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Science

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neutron lifetime, neutron decay, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, ultracold neutrons, Christopher L. Morris, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Review of Scientific Instruments

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A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 30-May-2017 11:00 AM EDT

Science

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material microstructure, Spectroscopy, Radiation, material properties, Radiation Exposure, microstructural evolution, meausrement, Cody A. Dennett, Michael P. Short, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, Applied Physics Letters

Collecting Real-Time Data About Material Microstructural Evolution During Radiation Exposure

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It may be surprising to learn that much remains unknown about radiation’s effects on materials. To find answers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers are developing techniques to explore the microstructural evolution and degradation of materials exposed to radiation. They report a dynamic option, this week in Applied Physics Letters, to continuously monitor the properties of materials being exposed to radiation during the exposure. This provides real-time information about a material’s microstructural evolution.

Science

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irradiated material, neutron radiation, glassy materials, disordered atomic network, Quartz, Vitrification, Glasses, Nuclear Waste, disordering, N.M. Anoop Krishnan, Bu Wang, Yann Le Pape, Gaurav Sant, Mathieu Bauchy, University of California, Los Angeles, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, The Journal Of Chemical Physics

Atomic Structure of Irradiated Materials Is More Akin to Liquid Than Glass

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Materials exposed to neutron radiation tend to experience significant damage. At the nanoscale, these incident neutrons collide with a material’s atoms, which then collide with each other. The resulting disordered atomic network resembles those seen in some glassy materials, which has led many in the field to use them in nuclear research. But the similarities between the materials may not be as useful as previously thought, according to this week’s The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Science

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plasma propulsion, Plasma, neutralizer, exhaust beam, Radio Frequency, radio-frequency self-bias effect, spectrscopy, James Dedrick, Andrew Gibson, Dmytro Rafalskyi, Ane Aanesland, University of York, CNRS - Ecole Polytechnique, Physics of Plasmas

Neptune: Neutralizer-Free Plasma Propulsion

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The most established plasma propulsion concepts are gridded-ion thrusters that accelerate and emit a larger number of positively charged particles than those that are negatively charged. To enable the spacecraft to remain charge-neutral, a “neutralizer” is used to inject electrons to exactly balance the positive ion charge in the exhaust beam. However, the neutralizer requires additional power from the spacecraft and increases the size and weight of the propulsion system. Researchers are investigating how the radio-frequency self-bias effect can be used to remove the neutralizer altogether, and they report their work in this week’s Physics of Plasmas.

Science

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Dynamo, Turbulence, Magnetic Field, von-Kármán-Sodium , Vortex, magnetic energy, dynamo theory, Jacobo Varela, Sacha Brun, Bérengère Dubrulle, Caroline Nore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, LIMSI, CEA Saclay, University Paris-Saclay, Physics of Plasmas

Understanding Stars: How Tornado-Shaped Flow in a Dynamo Strengthens the Magnetic Field

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A new simulation based on the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment takes a closer look at how the liquid vortex created by the device generates a magnetic field. Researchers investigated the effects of fluid resistivity and turbulence on the collimation of the magnetic field, where the vortex becomes a focused stream. They report their findings this week in the journal Physics of Fluids.

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Osmosis, osmotic flow, molecular mechanics, osmotic transports, bare osmosis, diffusio-osmosis, Sophie Marbach, Hiroaki Yoshida , Lydéric Bocquet, Ecole Normael Superieure , CNRS, The Journal Of Chemical Physics

Deconstructing Osmosis Provides Insight for Medical and Industrial Use

New research into osmosis-driven behavior now provides a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms, appearing as a pair of publications this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way.

Science

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Physics, Mosfet, Semiconductor, Transistors, diamond films

Engaging Diamond for Next-Era Transistors

Most transistors are silicon-based and silicon technology has driven the computer revolution. In some applications, however, silicon has significant limitations. Silicon devices are prone to faltering and failing in difficult environments. Addressing these challenges, Jiangwei Liu, from Japan’s National Institute for Materials Sciences, and his colleagues describe new work developing diamond-based transistors this week in the journal Applied Physics Letters, from AIP Publishing.

Science

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Semiconductor Electronics, CESL, Transistors, Physics

Managing Stress Helps Transistor Performance

A research team in China have developed a new CESL method that introduces tensile stress into both the channel and the drift region, improving overall performance by offering low drift resistance, high cut-off frequency and desirable breakdown characteristics. Their work is described in an article appearing this week in the journal AIP Advances, from AIP Publishing.

Science

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triboelectric nanogenerator, Teng, energy-harvesting, body motion, Wearable Technology, Energy, Kyung-Eun Byun, Min-Hyun Lee, Yeonchoo Cho, Seung-Geol Nam, Hyeon-Jin Shin, Seongjun Park, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, APL Materials

Can the Motion of Checking Your Smartwatch Charge It?

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are small devices that convert movement into electricity, and might just be what bring us into an era of energy-harvesting clothes and implants. But could TENGs, even theoretically, give us wearable electronics powered solely by the wearer’s day-to-day body motion? The short answer is yes. New research published this week in APL Materials demonstrates the ability of mechanical energy produced by typical body motions to power a watch or smartphone.

Science

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self-assembly, inverse design, computational machine, statistical interference, Colloids, R.B. Jadrich, B.A. Lindquist, T.M. Truskett, University Of Texas At Austin, The Journal Of Chemical Physics

‘Inverse Designing’ Spontaneously Self-Assembling Materials

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Researchers are exploring how molecular simulations with the latest optimization strategies can create a more systematic way of discovering new materials that exhibit specific, desired properties. More specifically, they did so by recasting the design goal to the microscopic, asking which interactions between constituent particles can cause them to spontaneously “self-assemble” into a bulk material with a particular property. To find the answer, reported this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics, they decided to zero in on how composite particles spatially organize themselves.







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