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Medicine

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obsesity, Type 2 Diabetes

Mechanism That Converts White Fat to Brown Identified

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An international team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet have, in experiments on mice, pinpointed a mechanism for the conversion of energy-storing white fat into energy-expending brown fat. The study is published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Medicine

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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, ibrutinib, Hematology, Cancer, Leukemia

Researchers Detect a Loophole in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment

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A team of researchers in Italy and Austria has determined that a drug approved to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be less effective in a particular subset of patients. The study, which will be published January 4 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reveals that ibrutinib has a diminished capacity to delocalize and kill tumor cells expressing an adhesive protein called CD49d, but combining ibrutinib treatment with drugs that block CD49d activation could prevent the tumor cells from sheltering in lymphoid organs.

Science

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Midshipman, toadfish, mating behavior, Physiology, Animal Sounds

Study Reveals How the Midshipman Fish Sustains Its Hour-Long Mating Call

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Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have discovered how the Pacific midshipman fish can hum continuously for up to an hour in order to attract potential mates. The study, which is featured on the cover of the January 2018 issue of the Journal of General Physiology, explains how the muscle fibers surrounding the fish’s swimbladder can sustain the high rates of contraction—up to 100 times per second—that are needed to produce the animal’s distinctive call.

Medicine

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Breast Cancer, NUMB, P53

Researchers Map Molecular Interaction That Prevents Aggressive Breast Cancer

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Researchers in Italy have discovered how specific versions of a protein called Numb protect the key tumor suppressor p53 from destruction. The study, which will be published December 21 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that the loss of these particular Numb proteins makes breast cancers more aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy, but points the way toward new therapeutic approaches that could improve patient outcome by preserving p53 levels.

Medicine

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Pancreatic Cancer, Epigenetics, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, PDAC

Researchers Identify Epigenetic Orchestrator of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

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Genentech researchers have identified an enzyme that shifts pancreatic cancer cells to a more aggressive, drug-resistant state by epigenetically modifying the cells’ chromatin. The study, which will be published December 11 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that targeting this enzyme could make pancreatic cancer cells more vulnerable to existing therapies that currently have only limited effect against this deadly form of cancer.

Medicine

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Cancer, Inflammation, Resolvins, Chemotherapy, Cancer Therapy

Study Reveals Cancer Therapy’s Double-Edged Sword... And How to Blunt It

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Researchers from Harvard Medical School and the Institute of Systems Biology have discovered that the remains of tumor cells killed by chemotherapy or other cancer treatments can actually stimulate tumor growth by inducing an inflammatory reaction. The study, which will be published November 30 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, also reveals that a family of molecules called resolvins can suppress this unwanted inflammatory response, suggesting new ways to enhance the effectiveness of existing cancer therapies.

Medicine

Science

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Stem Cells, Bone Marrow, Stem Cell Transplantation

Researchers Point Way to Improved Stem Cell Transplantation Therapies

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Researchers in Germany have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants can be improved by treatments that temporarily prevent the stem cells from dying. The approach, which is described in a paper to be published September 7 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, could allow those in need of such transplants, including leukemia and lymphoma patients, to be treated with fewer donor stem cells while limiting potential adverse side effects.

Medicine

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zika, Virus, Cancer, Brain Cancer, Glioblastoma

Zika Virus Could Be Used to Treat Brain Cancer Patients, Study Suggests

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Recent outbreaks of Zika virus have revealed that the virus causes brain defects in unborn children. But in a study to be published September 5 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, researchers from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of California, San Diego report that the virus could eventually be used to target and kill cancer cells in the brain.

Medicine

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Cell Biology, Neurolgoy, brain pathology, Alzheimer's Disease

Scientists Reveal Role for Lysosome Transport in Alzheimer’s Disease Progression

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Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine have discovered that defects in the transport of lysosomes within neurons promote the buildup of protein aggregates in the brains of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. The study, which will be published August 7 in The Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that developing ways to restore lysosome transport could represent a new therapeutic approach to treating the neurodegenerative disorder.

Medicine

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Type 2 Diabetes, Pancreas, Medicine & Health

Researchers Demonstrate Transmission of Diabetes Symptoms via Prion-Like Mechanism

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Researchers from McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have discovered that the symptoms of diabetes can be induced by a misfolded form of a pancreatic protein. The findings, which are reported in a paper to be published August 1 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, raise the possibility that type 2 diabetes can be transmitted by a mechanism similar to prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease).







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