South Dakota Scientist Tracks Indonesian Carbon Emissions
Source Newsroom: South Dakota State University
Newswise — An ill-fated plan to convert nearly 2.5 million acres of Kalimantan peat swamp forest into rice paddies has contributed to Indonesia becoming the third-largest emitter of carbon, according to South Dakota State University professor Mark Cochrane, a senior scientist at the Geospatial Sciences Center for Excellence.
Through a three-year, $2.2 million grant from NASA, Cochrane will use satellite imaging, field studies and modeling to help the Indonesian Forest Research and Development Agency assess the progress being made to reduce these emissions. He collaborates with carbon emissions expert Robert Yokelson, a chemistry professor from the University of Montana. The grant is part of NASA’s global carbon monitoring program that contributes to an international focus on reducing emissions due to deforestation.
Clearing peat forest
The Mega Rice Project, which began in 1996, sought to clear land in Borneo’s ancient peat swamp forests to raise enough rice to feed the Indonesian population, Cochrane explained. But the forest does not contain soil that will support crops.
“It was a giant catastrophe,” said Cochrane, who has done similar work on deforestation in Australia and Brazil.
Jack Rieley, director of the Kalimantan Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Research Project and Vice President of the International Peat Society, called the project, “the most glaring misuse of tropical peatland in recent times.”
Former Indonesian President Suharto authorized construction of nearly 2,900 miles of channels to drain the peat swamps and then loggers cleared the trees.
The peat forest soils consist of large accumulations of dead organic matter, some it tens of thousands of years old, more than 20 feet deep, explained Cochrane. Under normal circumstances, these water-logged, oxygen-starved peat domes don’t decay or burn.
When the land is drained, the organic matter compacts, decays and releases carbon, Cochrane said. “It’s like a block of ice evaporating in your refrigerator.”
Fires accelerate the oxidation process and, especially during dry years, there are many uncontrolled fires in the cleared areas, according to Cochrane, who has studied wildfires for more than 20 years. Indonesians accidentally ignite peat fires while burning to clear the peat surface for logging, hunting, fishing and farming.
A German research team estimated that the 1997 peat and forest fires during El Niño released between 0.87 and 2.57 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere.
Smoldering peat fires slowly burn thin layers of the organic matter but can only be extinguished when the land floods, Cochrane explained. Peat fires eat into the ground surface and release huge amounts of carbon, much more than typical forest fires do.
These peat fires can last for weeks or months, creating thick smoke that hampers travel and poses significant human health risks. Cochrane hopes to be able to figure out which fires are most likely to result in peat fires.
Determining damage from fires
To do this, he will examine fire data from 1996 to get a more quantitative estimate of how much of the atmospheric damage is occurring due to these fires.
“Carbon emissions from land cover change are very significant globally,” Cochrane said, estimating the impact can be the equivalent of 40 percent of all fossil fuel emissions on the planet during some years. Internationally, countries can get credit for verifiably reducing their carbon emissions.
Whether the peat forest ecosystem can be restored, Cochrane said, “will depend on how serious they are about reestablishing the hydrology.” That would mean blocking drainage channels now used as highways, effectively keeping out the people who are lighting the fires.
About the Geospatial Science Center of Excellence (GSCE)
The Geospatial Science Center of Excellence (GSCE) is a joint collaboration between South Dakota State University (SDSU) and the United States Geological Survey's National Center for Earth Resources Observation and Sciences (EROS). The purpose of the GSCE is to enable South Dakota State University faculty and students, and EROS scientists to carry out collaborative research, seek professional development, and implement educational programs in the applications of geographic information science.
About South Dakota State University
Founded in 1881, South Dakota State University is the state’s Morrill Act land-grant institution as well as its largest, most comprehensive school of higher education. SDSU confers degrees from eight different colleges representing more than 175 majors, minors and specializations. The institution also offers 29 master’s degree programs, 12 Ph.D. and two professional programs.
The work of the university is carried out on a residential campus in Brookings, at sites in Sioux Falls, Pierre and Rapid City, and through Cooperative Extension offices and Agricultural Experiment Station research sites across the state.