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Chemists ID Catalytic 'Key' for Converting CO2 to Methanol

Results from experiments and computational modeling studies that definitively identify the "active site" of a catalyst commonly used for making methanol from CO2 will guide the design of improved catalysts for transforming this pollutant to useful chemicals.

Cryo-Electron Microscopy Achieves Unprecedented Resolution Using New Computational Methods

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)--which enables the visualization of viruses, proteins, and other biological structures at the molecular level--is a critical tool used to advance biochemical knowledge. Now Berkeley Lab researchers have extended cryo-EM's impact further by developing a new computational algorithm instrumental in constructing a 3-D atomic-scale model of bacteriophage P22 for the first time.

New Study Maps Space Dust in 3-D

A new Berkeley Lab-led study provides detailed 3-D views of space dust in the Milky Way, which could help us understand the properties of this dust and how it affects views of distant objects.

Single-Angle Ptychography Allows 3D Imaging of Stressed Materials

Scientists have used a new X-ray diffraction technique called Bragg single-angle ptychography to get a clear picture of how planes of atoms shift and squeeze under stress.

New Feedback System Could Allow Greater Control Over Fusion Plasma

A physicist has created a new system that will let scientists control the energy and rotation of plasma in real time in a doughnut-shaped machine known as a tokamak.

Towards Super-Efficient, Ultra-Thin Silicon Solar Cells

Researchers from Ames Laboratory used supercomputers at NERSC to evaluate a novel approach for creating more energy-efficient ultra-thin crystalline silicon solar cells by optimizing nanophotonic light trapping.

Study IDs Link Between Sugar Signaling and Regulation of Oil Production in Plants

UPTON, NY--Even plants have to live on an energy budget. While they're known for converting solar energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, plants have sophisticated biochemical mechanisms for regulating how they spend that energy. Making oils costs a lot. By exploring the details of this delicate energy balance, a group of scientists from the U.

High-Energy Electrons Probe Ultrafast Atomic Motion

A new technique synchronized high-energy electrons with an ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time.

Rare Earth Recycling

A new energy-efficient separation of rare earth elements could provide a new domestic source of critical materials.

Two-Dimensional MXene Materials Get Their Close-Up

Researchers have long sought electrically conductive materials for economical energy-storage devices. Two-dimensional (2D) ceramics called MXenes are contenders.


Three SLAC Employees Awarded Lab's Highest Honor

At a March 7 ceremony, three employees of the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory were awarded the lab's highest honor ­- the SLAC Director's Award.

Dan Sinars Represents Sandia in First Energy Leadership Class

Dan Sinars, a senior manager in Sandia National Laboratories' pulsed power center, which built and operates the Z facility, is the sole representative from a nuclear weapons lab in a new Department of Energy leadership program that recently visited Sandia.

ORNL, HTS International Corporation to Collaborate on Manufacturing Research

HTS International Corporation and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have signed an agreement to explore potential collaborations in advanced manufacturing research.

Jefferson Lab Director Honored with Energy Secretary Award

Hugh Montgomery, director of the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), was awarded The Secretary's Distinguished Service Award by the Secretary of Energy earlier this year.

New Projects to Make Geothermal Energy More Economically Attractive

Geothermal energy, a clean, renewable source of energy produced by the heat of the earth, provides about 6 percent of California's total power. That number could be much higher if associated costs were lower. Now scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have launched two California Energy Commission-funded projects aimed at making geothermal energy more cost-effective to deploy and operate.

Southern Research Project Advances Novel CO2 Utilization Strategy

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has awarded Southern Research nearly $800,000 for a project that targets a more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly method of producing some of the most important chemicals used in manufacturing.

Harker School Wins 2017 SLAC Regional Science Bowl Competition

After losing its first match of the day to the defending champions, The Harker School's team won 10 consecutive rounds to claim victory in the annual SLAC Regional DOE Science Bowl on Saturday, Feb. 11.

Francis Alexander Named Deputy Director of Brookhaven Lab's Computational Science Initiative

Alexander brings extensive management and leadership experience in computational science research to the position.

Kalinin, Paranthaman Elected Materials Research Society Fellows

Two researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sergei Kalinin and Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, have been elected fellows of the Materials Research Society.

Two PNNL Researchers Elected to Membership in the National Academy of Engineering

Two scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will become members of the prestigious National Academy of Engineering.


High-Energy Electrons Probe Ultrafast Atomic Motion

A new technique synchronized high-energy electrons with an ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time.

Rare Earth Recycling

A new energy-efficient separation of rare earth elements could provide a new domestic source of critical materials.

Modeling the "Flicker" of Gluons in Subatomic Smashups

A new model identifies a high degree of fluctuations in the glue-like particles that bind quarks within protons as essential to explaining proton structure.

Rare Nickel Atom Has "Doubly Magic" Structure

Supercomputing calculations confirm that rare nickel-78 has unusual structure, offering insights into supernovas.

Microbial Activity in the Subsurface Contributes to Greenhouse Gas Fluxes

Natural carbon dioxide production from deep subsurface soils contributes significantly to emissions, even in a semiarid floodplain.

Stretching a Metal Into an Insulator

Straining a thin film controllably allows tuning of the materials' magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties, essential for new energy and electronic devices.

How Moisture Affects the Way Soil Microbes Breathe

Study models soil-pore features that hold or release carbon dioxide.

ARM Data Is for the Birds

Scientists use LIDAR and radar data to study bird migration patterns, thanks to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

The Future of Coastal Flooding

Better storm surge prediction capabilities could help reduce the impacts of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes.

Estimating Global Energy Use for Water-Related Processes

Scientists find that water-related energy consumption is increasing across the globe, with pronounced differences across regions and sectors.


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At Agu: Shale Sequestration, Water for Energy & Soil Microbes

Article ID: 611296

Released: 2013-12-06 11:35:00

Source Newsroom: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  • Credit: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    PNNL research is digging into using empty space in underground shale formations to permanently store carbon emissions from power plants. This map shows where shale gas formations (purple dots) are near carbon-emitting power plants (orange dots).

SAN FRANCISCO – Scientists from the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will present a variety of their research at the 2013 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, which runs Monday, Dec. 9 through Friday, Dec. 13 at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco. Among the noteworthy PNNL research scheduled to be discussed are carbon sequestration in empty shale reservoirs, water needs for future energy production and how soil microbes adjust to climate change. More information is below.

Chemistry informs economics of carbon sequestration at shale gas sites

Shale formations – underground mixes of mud, minerals and gas that have sparked a natural gas drilling boom in the United States – could also help power plants meet proposed EPA emission regulations by permanently storing carbon dioxide. But while many pollution-emitting power plants are located near shale formations, little is known about the complex chemistry of shales reacting with pumped-in carbon emissions. The issue is complicated by the variety of different clay minerals that make up shales. PNNL scientists are getting to the bottom of these details by conducting laboratory experiments and computer modeling research to determine how carbon dioxide, methane and common power plant byproducts such as sulfur dioxide react with the four clays common in shales. Early results show the clay mineral montmorillonite expands to hold more carbon emissions under certain conditions. Tests also show the clay kaolinite has a sweet spot to absorb emissions with an ideal combination of pressure and carbon dioxide concentrations. PNNL geologist Todd Schaef will present these and other results, including a preliminary cost-benefit analysis of carbon sequestration at the United States’ shale gas reservoirs.

MR21B-5: “CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs,” 9-9:15 a.m., Tuesday, Dec. 10, 301 (Moscone South).

Water consumption to increase with future U.S. energy needs

Future power plants can use more water-efficient cooling technologies to withdraw less water from rivers and ponds, but PNNL research shows there is a tradeoff. Water-efficient cooling technologies typically reuse water instead of using it just once, but they also warm the reused water and cause evaporation that removes water from the local ecosystem. PNNL used a computer model to estimate future energy generation and associated water use for each of the 50 states. The detailed analysis found while the nation’s energy sector could withdraw less water with advanced cooling technologies, the amount of water consumed through evaporation would increase. The study also identified several other trends, such as energy-related water withdrawals decreasing in the Eastern U.S. while they increase in the West. PNNL environmental scientist Lu Liu will present a poster on this research.

H11J-1274: “An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095,” 8 a.m. – 12:20 p.m., Tuesday, Dec. 10, Hall A-C (Moscone South).

Climate change alters bacteria behavior

Climate change doesn’t affect just polar bears and ice caps; it also impacts the tiny microbes that help plants soak up nutrients in the soil. New research shows transplanted soil bacteria adjust their enzyme production to better survive in a new climate. The findings are a result of a unique study where soil samples were transplanted between two elevations about 1700 feet apart on an isolated mountain in rural Washington state. The scientists gave the transplanted soil about 17 years to settle into its new surroundings and then compared its bacteria with bacteria in unmoved soil samples. The researchers found bacteria made more of some enzymes in the higher-up soil, where it’s wetter and cooler and there’s more vegetation. The enzymes found in greater abundance break down cellulose – the tough, pithy material that gives plants structure – and chitin – another tough material that strengthens fungal cell walls. The researchers hypothesize the higher-elevation bacteria produce more of those enzymes because the richer soils there are home to more plants and fungi for the bacteria to digest. Better understanding how climate impacts microbes can also help us better understand climate change, as many of the greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change occur as a result of interactions with microbes. PNNL microbiologist Vanessa Bailey will present a poster on this research.

B51D-0311: “Bacterial Community Structure after a 17-year Reciprocal Soil Transplant Simulating Climate Change with Elevation,” 8 a.m. - Noon, Friday, Dec. 13, Hall A-C (Moscone South).

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Interdisciplinary teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory address many of America's most pressing issues in energy, the environment and national security through advances in basic and applied science. Founded in 1965, PNNL employs 4,300 staff and has an annual budget of about $950 million. It is managed by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. For more information, visit the PNNL News Center, or follow PNNL on Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn and Twitter.

Media contact: Franny White, PNNL News & Media Relations, 509-375-6904, franny.white@pnnl.gov