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Rare Supernova Discovery Ushers in New Era for Cosmology

With help from a supernova-hunting pipeline based at NERSC, astronomers captured multiple images of a gravitationally lensed Type 1a supernova. This is currently the only one, but if astronomers can find more they may be able to measure Universal expansion within four percent accuracy. Luckily, Berkeley Lab researchers do have a method for finding more.

Making Batteries From Waste Glass Bottles

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering have used waste glass bottles and a low-cost chemical process to create nanosilicon anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The batteries will extend the range of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and provide more power with fewer charges to personal electronics like cell phones and laptops.

Changing the Game

High performance computing researcher Shuaiwen Leon Song asked if hardware called 3D stacked memory could do something it was never designed to do--help render 3D graphics.

A Scientific Advance for Cool Clothing: Temperature-Wise, That Is

Stanford University researchers, with the aid of the Comet supercomputer at the San Diego Supercomputer at UC San Diego, have engineered a low-cost plastic material that could become the basis for clothing that cools the wearer, reducing the need for energy-consuming air conditioning.

Adjusting Solar Panel Angles a Few Times a Year Makes Them More Efficient

With Earth Day approaching, new research from Binghamton University-State of New York could help U.S. residents save more energy, regardless of location, if they adjust the angles of solar panels four to five times a year.

A Real CAM-Do Attitude

A multi-institutional team used resources at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to catalog how desert plants photosynthetic processes vary. The study could help scientists engineer drought-resistant crops for food and fuel.

Predictive Power

The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors carried out the largest time-dependent simulation of a nuclear reactor ever to support Tennessee Valley Authority and Westinghouse Electric Company during the startup of Watts Bar Unit 2, the first new US nuclear reactor in 20 years. The simulation was carried out primarily on OLCF resources.

Advantage: Water

When water comes in for a landing on the common catalyst titanium oxide, it splits into hydroxyls just under half the time. Water's oxygen and hydrogen atoms shift back and forth between existing as water or hydroxyls, and water has the slightest advantage, like the score in a highly competitive tennis game.

Self-Assembling Polymers Provide Thin Nanowire Template

In a recent study, a team of researchers from Argonne, the University of Chicago and MIT has developed a new way to create some of the world's thinnest wires, using a process that could enable mass manufacturing with standard types of equipment.

Did You Catch That? Robot's Speed of Light Communication Could Protect You From Danger

If you were monitoring a security camera and saw someone set down a backpack and walk away, you might pay special attention - especially if you had been alerted to watch that particular person. According to Cornell University researchers, this might be a job robots could do better than humans, by communicating at the speed of light and sharing images.


ORNL to Collaborate with Five Small Businesses to Advance Energy Tech

Five small companies have been selected to partner with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory to move technologies in commercial refrigeration systems, water power generation, bioenergy and battery manufacturing closer to the marketplace.

U.S. Department of Energy's INCITE Program Seeks Advanced Computational Research Proposals for 2018

The Department of Energy's INCITE program will be accepting proposals for high-impact, computationally intensive research campaigns in a broad array of science, engineering, and computer science domains.

New Berkeley Lab Project Turns Waste Heat to Electricity

A new Berkeley Lab project seeks to efficiently capture waste heat and convert it to electricity, potentially saving California up to $385 million per year. With a $2-million grant from the California Energy Commission, Berkeley Lab scientists will work with Alphabet Energy to create a cost-effective thermoelectric waste heat recovery system.

New SLAC Theory Institute Aims to Speed Research on Exotic Materials at Light Sources

A new institute at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is using the power of theory to search for new types of materials that could revolutionize society - by making it possible, for instance, to transmit electricity over power lines with no loss.

Lenvio Inc. Exclusively Licenses ORNL Malware Behavior Detection Technology

Virginia-based Lenvio Inc. has exclusively licensed a cyber security technology from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory that can quickly detect malicious behavior in software not previously identified as a threat.

Argonne Scientist and Nobel Laureate Alexei Abrikosov Dies at 88

Alexei Abrikosov, an acclaimed physicist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory who received the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on superconducting materials, died Wednesday, March 29. He was 88.

Jefferson Lab Accomplishes Critical Milestones Toward Completion of 12 GeV Upgrade

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has achieved two major commissioning milestones and is now entering the final stretch of work to conclude its first major upgrade. Recently, the CEBAF accelerator delivered electron beams into two of its experimental halls, Halls B and C, at energies not possible before the upgrade for commissioning of the experimental equipment currently in each hall. Data were recorded in each hall, which were then confirmed to be of sufficient quality to allow for particle identification, a primary indicator of good detector operation.

Valerie Taylor Named Argonne National Laboratory's Mathematics and Computer Science Division Director

Computer scientist Valerie Taylor has been appointed as the next director of the Mathematics and Computer Science division at Argonne, effective July 3, 2017.

Three SLAC Employees Awarded Lab's Highest Honor

At a March 7 ceremony, three employees of the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory were awarded the lab's highest honor ­- the SLAC Director's Award.

Dan Sinars Represents Sandia in First Energy Leadership Class

Dan Sinars, a senior manager in Sandia National Laboratories' pulsed power center, which built and operates the Z facility, is the sole representative from a nuclear weapons lab in a new Department of Energy leadership program that recently visited Sandia.


Ultrafast Imaging Reveals the Electron's New Clothes

Scientists use high-speed electrons to visualize "dress-like" distortions in the atomic lattice. This work reveals the vital role of electron-lattice interactions in manganites. This material could be used in data-storage devices with increased data density and reduced power requirements.

One Small Change Makes Solar Cells More Efficient

For years, scientists have explored using tiny drops of designer materials, called quantum dots, to make better solar cells. Adding small amounts of manganese decreases the ability of quantum dots to absorb light but increases the current produced by an average of 300%.

Electronic "Cyclones" at the Nanoscale

Through highly controlled synthesis, scientists controlled competing atomic forces to let spiral electronic structures form. These polar vortices can serve as a precursor to new phenomena in materials. The materials could be vital for ultra-low energy electronic devices.

In a Flash! A New Way for Making Ceramics

A new process controllably but instantly consolidates ceramic parts, potentially important for manufacturing.

Deciphering Material Properties at the Single-Atom Level

Scientists determine the precise location and identity of all 23,000 atoms in a nanoparticle.

Smallest Transistor Ever

It has long been thought that building nanometer-sized transistors was impossible. Simply put, the physics and atomic structural imperfections couldn't be overcome. However, scientists built fully functional, nanometer-sized transistors.

Creation of Artificial Atoms

For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. The results from this research demonstrate a viable, controllable, and reversible technique to confine electrons in graphene.

Developing Tools to Understand Lithium-Ion Battery Instabilities

Scientists develop tools to understand Li-ion battery instabilities, enabling the study of electrodes and solid-electrolyte interphase formation.

Skyrmions Created with a Special Spiral

Researchers at Argonne have found a way to control the creation of special textured surfaces, called skyrmions, in magnetically ordered materials.

Coming Together, Falling Apart, and Starting Over, Battery Style

Scientists built a new device that shows what happens when electrode, electrolyte, and active materials meet in energy storage technologies.


Friday April 07, 2017, 11:05 AM

Champions in Science: Profile of Jonathan Kirzner

Department of Energy, Office of Science

Wednesday April 05, 2017, 12:05 PM

High-Schooler Solves College-Level Security Puzzle From Argonne, Sparks Interest in Career

Argonne National Laboratory

Tuesday March 28, 2017, 12:05 PM

Champions in Science: Profile of Jenica Jacobi

Department of Energy, Office of Science

Friday March 24, 2017, 10:40 AM

Great Neck South High School Wins Regional Science Bowl at Brookhaven Lab

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Wednesday February 15, 2017, 04:05 PM

Middle Schoolers Test Their Knowledge at Science Bowl Competition

Argonne National Laboratory

Friday January 27, 2017, 04:00 PM

Haslam Visits ORNL to Highlight State's Role in Discovering Tennessine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Tuesday November 08, 2016, 12:05 PM

Internship Program Helps Foster Development of Future Nuclear Scientists

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Friday May 13, 2016, 04:05 PM

More Than 12,000 Explore Jefferson Lab During April 30 Open House

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Monday April 25, 2016, 05:05 PM

Giving Back to National Science Bowl

Ames Laboratory

Friday March 25, 2016, 12:05 PM

NMSU Undergrad Tackles 3D Particle Scattering Animations After Receiving JSA Research Assistantship

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Tuesday February 02, 2016, 10:05 AM

Shannon Greco: A Self-Described "STEM Education Zealot"

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Monday November 16, 2015, 04:05 PM

Rare Earths for Life: An 85th Birthday Visit with Mr. Rare Earth

Ames Laboratory

Tuesday October 20, 2015, 01:05 PM

Meet Robert Palomino: 'Give Everything a Shot!'

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Tuesday April 22, 2014, 11:30 AM

University of Utah Makes Solar Accessible

University of Utah

Wednesday March 06, 2013, 03:40 PM

Student Innovator at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Seeks Brighter, Smarter, and More Efficient LEDs

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Friday November 16, 2012, 10:00 AM

Texas Tech Energy Commerce Students, Community Light up Tent City

Texas Tech University

Wednesday November 23, 2011, 10:45 AM

Don't Get 'Frosted' Over Heating Your Home This Winter

Temple University

Wednesday July 06, 2011, 06:00 PM

New Research Center To Tackle Critical Challenges Related to Aircraft Design, Wind Energy, Smart Buildings

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Friday April 22, 2011, 09:00 AM

First Polymer Solar-Thermal Device Heats Home, Saves Money

Wake Forest University

Friday April 15, 2011, 12:25 PM

Like Superman, American University Will Get Its Energy from the Sun

American University

Thursday February 10, 2011, 05:00 PM

ARRA Grant to Help Fund Seminary Building Green Roof

University of Chicago

Tuesday December 07, 2010, 05:00 PM

UC San Diego Installing 2.8 Megawatt Fuel Cell to Anchor Energy Innovation Park

University of California San Diego

Monday November 01, 2010, 12:50 PM

Rensselaer Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Announces First Deployment of New Technology on Campus

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Friday September 10, 2010, 12:40 PM

Ithaca College Will Host Regional Clean Energy Summit

Ithaca College

Tuesday July 27, 2010, 10:30 AM

Texas Governor Announces $8.4 Million Award to Create Renewable Energy Institute

Texas Tech University

Friday May 07, 2010, 04:20 PM

Creighton University to Offer New Alternative Energy Program

Creighton University

Wednesday May 05, 2010, 09:30 AM

National Engineering Program Seeks Subject Matter Experts in Energy

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Wednesday April 21, 2010, 12:30 PM

Students Using Solar Power To Create Sustainable Solutions for Haiti, Peru

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Wednesday March 03, 2010, 07:00 PM

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Thursday February 04, 2010, 02:00 PM

Turning Exercise into Electricity

Furman University

Thursday November 12, 2009, 12:45 PM

Campus Leaders Showing the Way to a Sustainable, Clean Energy Future

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Tuesday November 03, 2009, 04:20 PM

Furman University Receives $2.5 Million DOE Grant for Geothermal Project

Furman University

Thursday September 17, 2009, 02:45 PM

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Wednesday September 16, 2009, 11:15 AM

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College Presidents Flock to D.C., Urge Senate to Pass Clean Energy Bill

National Wildlife Federation (NWF)

Wednesday July 01, 2009, 04:15 PM

Northeastern Announces New Professional Master's in Energy Systems

Northeastern University

Friday October 12, 2007, 09:35 AM

Kansas Rural Schools To Receive Wind Turbines

Kansas State University

Thursday August 17, 2006, 05:30 PM

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Wednesday May 17, 2006, 06:45 PM

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University of Maryland, College Park




Q&A with CFN User Davood Shahrjerdi

Article ID: 673245

Released: 2017-04-19 12:20:49

Source Newsroom: Brookhaven National Laboratory

  • Credit: Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Davood Shahrjerdi in the scanning electron microscope facility at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). The image on the screen is a Hall bar structure for measuring carrier transport in a semiconductor wire.

  • Credit: Brookhaven National Laboratory

    The 5,000-square-foot clean room at CFN is dedicated to state-of-the-art processing of thin-film materials and devices. Capabilities include high-resolution patterning by electron-beam and nanoimprint lithography methods, plasma-based dry etch processes, and material deposition.

  • Credit: NYU

    The single-atom-thick tungsten disulfide (illustration, left) can absorb and emit light, making it attractive for applications in optoelectronics, sensing, and flexible electronics. The photoemission image of the NYU logo (right) shows the monolayer material emitting light.

  • Credit: Applied Physics Letters 110, 033503 (2017)

    Shahrjerdi and his team fabricated top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs)—devices that utilize a small voltage to control current—on as-grown and superacid-treated molybdenum disulfide films. A schematic of the device is shown in (a). As seen in the graph (b), the chemical treatment (TFSI, red line) improves the electronic properties of the device.

Davood Shahrjerdi is an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at New York University (NYU) and a principal investigator at the NYU Laboratory for Nano-Engineered Hybrid Integrated Systems. Shahrjerdi, who holds a doctorate in solid-state electronics from The University of Texas at Austin, engineers nanodevices for sensing and life science applications through integrating the unique properties of emerging nanomaterials with advanced silicon-based electronics. For the past two years, he has been using facilities at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)—a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory—to fabricate and characterize these nanodevices.

What is the mission of the NYU Laboratory for Nano-Engineered Hybrid Integrated Systems?

My lab’s mission is to create new electronic devices for sensing and life science applications. To achieve this goal, we combine the benefits of emerging nanomaterials—such as two-dimensional (2D) materials like graphene—and advanced silicon integrated circuits. These nano-engineered bioelectronic systems offer new functionalities that exist in neither nanomaterials nor silicon electronics alone. At the moment, we are leveraging our expertise to engineer new tools for neuroscience applications.

We are also doing research for realizing high-performance flexible electronics for bioelectronics applications. Our approach is two pronged: (1) flexible electronics using technologically mature materials, such as silicon, that are conventionally mechanically rigid, and (2) flexible electronics using atomically thin 2D nanomaterials that are inherently flexible.

Given the resources of NYU and the plethora of nanotechnology research centers in the surrounding New York City area, why bring your research to CFN?

Before I joined academia, I was a research staff member at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, where I had easy access to advanced fabrication and characterization facilities. When I joined NYU in September 2014, I began to look for research facilities to pursue my research projects. In my search, I discovered CFN and reached out to its scientists, who were very helpful in explaining the research proposal process and the available facilities for my research. In the past two years, my research projects have evolved tremendously, and access to CFN laboratories has been instrumental to this evolution. Because research-active scientists maintain CFN labs, I can conduct my research without major hiccups—a rare occurrence in academia, where equipment downtime and process changes could set back experiments.

It is not only the state-of-the-art facilities but also the interactions with scientists that have made CFN invaluable to my research. I could use other fabrication facilities in Manhattan, but I prefer to come to CFN. At IBM, I could walk out of my office and knock on any door, gaining access to the expertise of chemists, physicists, and device engineers. This multidisciplinary environment similarly exists at CFN, and it is conducive to driving science forward. Bringing my research to the CFN also means that my doctoral students and postdocs have the opportunity to use state-of-the-art facilities and interact with world-class scientists.

What tools do you use at CFN to conduct your research, and what are some of the projects you are currently working on?

We synthesize the 2D nanomaterials at my NYU lab, with subsequent device fabrication and some advanced material characterization at CFN. After device fabrication, we perform electrical characterization at my NYU lab.  

In addition to using the materials processing capabilities in CFN’s clean room, we use advanced material characterization capabilities to glean information about the properties of our materials and devices at the nanoscale. These capabilities include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the structure of the materials, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to examine their chemical state, and nano-Auger electron spectroscopy to probe their elemental composition.

One of our projects is the large-area synthesis of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors, which are materials that have a transition metal atom (such as molybdenum or tungsten) sandwiched between two chalcogen atoms (sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). Using a modified version of chemical vapor deposition (referring to the deposition of gaseous reactants onto a substrate to form a solid), my team synthesized a monolayer of tungsten disulfide that has the highest carrier mobility reported for this material. I am now working with CFN scientists to understand the origin of this high electrical performance through low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Our understanding could lead to the development of next-generation flexible biomedical devices.

Recently, our team together with CFN scientists published a paper on studying the defects in another 2D transition metal dichalcogenide, monolayer molybdenum disulfide. We treated the material with a superacid and used the nano-Auger technique to determine which structural defects were “healed” by the superacid. Our electrical measurements revealed the superacid treatment improves the material’s performance.

Another ongoing project in my NYU lab involves a collaborative effort with the NYU Center for Neural Science to develop next-generation neuroprobes for understanding not only the electrical signaling in the brain but also the chemical signaling. This problem is challenging to solve, and we are excited about the prospects of nanotechnology for realizing an innovative solution to it.

In fabricating nanoelectronic materials and components, what are some of the challenges you face?

Nanomaterials are usually difficult to handle—they are often very thin and are highly sensitive to defects or misprocessing. As a result, reproducibility could be a challenge. To understand what is causing a particular observed behavior, we have to fabricate many samples and try to reproduce the same result to understand the physical origin of an observed behavior.

Also, it often happens that you expect to observe a certain behavior but you might end up observing an anomalous behavior that could lead to new discoveries. For example, I accidentally stumbled on the epitaxial growth of silicon on silicon at 120-degrees Celsius while playing around with hydrogen dilution during the deposition of amorphous silicon. This temperature is much lower than the usual temperature required by the traditional approach. My IBM collaborators and I published the work, and it actually led to a best paper award from the Journal of Electronic Materials!

What is the most exciting thing on the horizon for nanoelectronics? What do you personally hope to achieve?

Over the next 5 to 10 years, the field of nanoelectronics has great potential to transform our lives—especially in the areas of bioelectronics and bio-inspired electronics, with the marriage between nanomaterials and conventional electronics leading to new discoveries in the life sciences.

Biosensing is the area that I am most passionate about. The research community still has a limited understanding of how the brain functions, hindering the progress for developing treatments and drugs for neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s. Developing next-generation sensors that advance our understanding of the brain will have tremendous economic and societal impact. I am very excited about our neuroprobe project.

Also, better understanding of the brain could lead to new discoveries for realizing next-generation computing systems that are inspired by the brain. For example, nanoscale memory devices that could mimic the synapses of the brain would open new horizons for brain-inspired computing. I am engaged in a collaborative effort with The University of Texas at Austin to explore the prospects of nanoscale memristors (short for memory resistor, a new class of electrical circuits with memories that retain information even after the power is shut off) for such an application. 

NYU is home to the second-highest number of international students in the United States, representing more than 130 different countries, and CFN employs staff and hosts users from around the world. How has being in these multicultural environments impacted your research?

I believe science has no boundaries because it is shared by people who are driven by their curiosity to discover unknowns and have the desire to better humanity. These sentiments are at the core of scientific communities. Though we may have different backgrounds, our common ground is working on problems that have not yet been solved or discovering the undiscovered.

How did you become interested in science in general and specifically neuroscience?

As a kid, I was fascinated with science, particularly physics, and building things. By high school, I had also developed an interest in biology and particularly the brain. When I completed high school in Iran, I had to make the decision of whether I wanted to pursue an undergraduate degree or attend medical school. In Iran, there are no pre-med programs—you start medical school directly after high school, and you cannot enroll in medical school after you have taken the undergraduate route.

My passion at the time was electrical engineering, so I went for the undergraduate degree. This passion evolved into device physics, my PhD field. After a few years at IBM as a device physicist, my love of bioelectronics was rekindled. I started studying neuroscience and even contemplated attending medical school in the United States. Finally, I decided to join academia and apply my knowledge of physics and electronics to the area of bioelectronics. I feel fortunate to have found a career in which I can combine my expertise and interests.