Social and Behavioral Sciences
Derailed Train of Thought? Brain’s Stopping System May Be at Fault
Study suggests same neural mechanism that interrupts body movement also interrupts cognition. Findings may give insights into Parkinson's: The system “over-stopping” motor activity might also be keeping patients over-focused. More speculatively, the findings may give insights into conditions characterized by distractibility, such as ADHD.Media embedded: Image(s) (Embargo expired on 18-Apr-2016 at 05:00 ET)
Nature Communications; 220020375, R21NS085543 and DA026452
– University of California, San Diego
Most Americans Pray for Healing; More Than One Fourth Have Practiced ‘Laying on of Hands,’ Baylor Study Finds
Nearly nine of 10 Americans have relied upon healing prayer at some point in their lives, praying for others even more than for themselves, according to a study by a Baylor University epidemiologist.
“The most surprising finding is that more than a quarter of all Americans have practiced laying on of hands — and nearly one in five has done so on multiple occasionsMedia embedded: Image(s)
– Baylor University
Don’t Count on Strangers in Medical Emergencies, Especially if You’re African-American
So long, good Samaritans. In the first study of its kind, Cornell sociologists have found that people who have a medical emergency in a public place can’t necessarily rely on the kindness of strangers. Only 2.5 percent of people, or 1 in 39, got help from strangers before emergency medical personnel arrived, in research published April 14 in the American Journal of Public Health.
American Journal of Public Health, April 2016
– Cornell University
Self-Understanding Helps Criminal Substance Abusers
Impulsiveness, crime and problems with social interaction. Many substance abusers also struggle with antisocial personality disorders, which makes it difficult for them to complete a drug or alcohol treatment programme. New research from the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research at Aarhus BSS reveals that just six additional counselling sessions may lower the drop-out rate and increase the outcome of the treatment programme.
– Aarhus University
Multiple Paternity May Offer Fewer Advantages Than Previously Thought
Promiscuity is common among females in the animal kingdom. Mating with multiple males can increase genetic diversity and enhance the survival of the offspring. When given a choice, female house mice mate with multiple males. "The females select their partner on the basis of their scent markings. These chemical signals provide a surprising amount of information about possible partners, including their health and disease resistance," explains Kerstin Thonhauser of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology at Vetmeduni Vienna.Media embedded: Image(s)
– University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna
Family Dynamics Cause Major Stress for Latino Immigrant Families
Threats to familismo — deeply held cultural beliefs about the centrality of family in daily life — are often a major source of stress for immigrants and can have a negative impact on their overall health and well-being as they move forward in a new country.
– Florida State University