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Newswise SciWire - Science News for Journalists
Newswise SciWire
Monday, November 20, 2017

Public Edition | newswise.com

Science
(44 New)
 

Science News

20-Nov-2017


Raindrops Splash Pathogens Onto Crops

Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses or fungi, cause harmful plant disease and often lead to the destruction of agricultural fields. With many possible dispersal methods, it can often be difficult to assess the damage of a pathogen’s impact before ...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET

includes video


'Magic' Sinus Paths Could Mean New Instructions for Nasal Sprays

Sinus infections, inflammation and nasal congestion constantly plague Americans, often leading to unpleasant symptoms and even missed days of work. Traditional nasal spray anti-inflammatory medications attempt to treat the symptoms noninvasively, but...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


The Physics Behind Dandelion Seed Plume Dispersal Revealed

The fluffy dandelion seed head infuriates gardeners, but delights physicists. That’s because those seeds may lend key insights into the physics of parachutes, useful for designing small drones, or micro air vehicles. An interdisciplinary collaborat...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET

includes video


Bubbles Clustering While Pouring Stout Beers?

If you’ve poured a stout beer into a pint glass, you may have wondered about the or physics behind the rapid rise of bubbles and three-color shift when dark, medium and light shades are all clearly visible, before it transitions to simply beer and ...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


Plesiosaur Flippers Inspire a Steering Mechanism for Swimming Robotic Vehicle

Plesiosaurs, who thrived during the early to middle Jurassic Period, used four paddlelike flippers of nearly equal size and musculature to swim. Despite the seemingly subpar engineering, the fossil record reveals that plesiosaurs were widespread and ...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


Underwater Sniffing of Star-Nosed Moles Is Mimicked for Chemical-Detecting ‘Electronic Nose’

The star-nosed mole has several unusual abilities. One of them is “sniffing” underwater by blowing bubbles and quickly re-inhaling them, detecting odors of its prey through the water. The moles’ “star” nose features a ring of tiny, pink ten...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


Stinging Cells Pack a Powerful Pressure

The stinging cells of jellyfish, called nematocytes, have evolved to be one of the world’s most efficient predation tools. The nematocysts consist of a capsule and folded tubule, and use high pressure and acceleration for defense and locomotion and...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


Update on Restore the Call: Loon Conservation Project

An update on the Restore the Call including the release of eight loon chicks onto lakes in southeastern Massachusetts.

– Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI)

19-Nov-2017


'Explosive' Hot Oil Droplets Could Hurt Your Skin -- and Air Quality

Cooking in a frying pan with oil can quickly become dangerous if “explosive” hot oil droplets jump out of the pan, leading to painful burns. But these droplets may be doing something even more damaging: contributing to indoor air pollution. A gro...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 19-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET

includes video

17-Nov-2017


A Popular Tool to Trace Earth’s Oxygen History Can Give False Positives

If someone cries "Eureka!" because it looks like oxygen appeared in Earth's ancient atmosphere long before the body of evidence indicated, consider this: If it was a chromium isotope system reading that caused the enthusiasm, it might need to be curb...

– Georgia Institute of Technology

Nature Communications

Embargo expired on 17-Nov-2017 at 05:00 ET


Water World

Following the paths of radicals and finding many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, fast and sensitive mass spectrometry, three Washington University scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms — a strain o...

– Washington University in St. Louis

Science Advances, Nov-2917

Embargo expired on 17-Nov-2017 at 14:00 ET


Scientists Capture Colliding Organic Nanoparticles on Video for First Time

A Northwestern University research team is the first to capture on video organic nanoparticles colliding and fusing together. This unprecedented view of “chemistry in motion” will aid Northwestern nanoscientists developing new drug delivery metho...

– Northwestern University

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Embargo expired on 17-Nov-2017 at 00:05 ET


Soil Carbon Sinks, Coral Adaptation, Earth's Oxygen History, and More in the Environmental Science News Source

The latest research on the environment in the Environmental Science News Source

– Newswise


The One Gene, Menu Labeling, Holiday Food Stress, and More in the Obesity News Source

Click here to go directly to Newswise's Obesity News Source

– Newswise


Research Predicts Coral Adaptation is Possible if Ocean Warming Rates are Reduced

A new study led by researchers from UC Davis, UCLA, Stanford University and California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) predicts coral adaptation is possible if ocean warming rates are reduced.

– California State University, Monterey Bay

Science Advances


Unplugging the Cellulose Biofuel Bottleneck

Molecular-level understanding of cellulose structure reveals why it resists degradation and could lead to cost-effective biofuels.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Scientific Reports 7, 44319 (2017). [DOI: 10.1038/srep44319]


The Challenge of Estimating Alaska’s Soil Carbon Stocks

A geospatial analysis determined the optimal distribution of sites needed to reliably estimate Alaska’s vast soil carbon.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122(2), 415-429 (2017). [DOI: 10.1002/2016JG003421]


Strain-Free Epitaxy of Germanium Film on Mica

Germanium was the material of choice in the early history of electronic devices, and due to its high charge carrier mobility, it’s making a comeback. It’s generally grown on expensive single-crystal substrates, adding another challenge to making ...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Journal of Applied Physics


Cornell Mathematician's Study of ‘Swarmalators’ Could Direct Future Science

How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of noted mathematician Steven Strogatz? As it turns out, quite prominently. Cornell researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploratio...

– Cornell University

Nature Communications


When to Fish: Timing Matters for Fish That Migrate to Reproduce

A new University of Washington study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certa...

– University of Washington

Fish & Fisheries, Oct-2017


STEM on Wheels: Bringing Inspiration, Innovation and Creativity to Students

CSU Dominguez Hills’ four new mobile Fab Labs are making science relevant and fun for students of all ages — and delivering unique STEM experiences straight to local classrooms.

– California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office

includes video


Researchers Expect New Fish Passage Will Help Restore Migratory Fish Populations

The addition of a nature-like fish passage to a Susquehanna River dam in Pennsylvania should allow migrating fish to more easily reach spawning grounds, according to Penn State researchers.

– Penn State College of Engineering

16-Nov-2017


New Painkillers Reduce Overdose Risk

The research shows that a range of compounds can deliver pain-blocking potency without affecting respiration.

– Scripps Research Institute

Cell, Nov. 16, 2017; R01 DA033073; R01 DA038694

Embargo expired on 16-Nov-2017 at 12:00 ET


Observatory in Mexico Sheds Light on Origin of Excess Positrons in Outer Space

Using new data from the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory in Mexico, researchers have ruled out two pulsars previously believed to be the source of excess positrons just above the Earth’s atmosphere.

– Los Alamos National Laboratory

Science

Embargo expired on 16-Nov-2017 at 14:00 ET


On the Origins of Star Stuff: HAWC Collaboration Sheds Light on Origin of Anti-Matter

Michigan Tech team and others use a high-altitude observatory in Mexico to better understand where gamma rays come from.

– Michigan Technological University

Science

Embargo expired on 16-Nov-2017 at 14:00 ET


How Fungal Enzymes Break Down Plant Cell Walls

Lignocellulose-degrading enzyme complexes could improve biofuel production.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Nature Microbiology 2, 17087 (2017). [DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.87]


The Stacked Colour Sensor

Red-sensitive, blue-sensitive and green-sensitive colour sensors stacked on top of each other instead of being lined up in a mosaic pattern - this principle could allow image sensors with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity to light to be create...

– Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

NPG Asia Materials (2017) 9, e431 (2017); Empa media release


New Motion Sensors a Major Step Toward Low-Cost, High-Performance Wearable Technology

Researchers from the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering have developed a class of breakthrough motion sensors that could herald a near future of ubiquitous, fully integrated and affordable wearable technology.

– Florida State University

Materials and Design, Nov-2017


Toys That Look Identical Aren’t Identically Safe, Biomechanics Experts Say

The popularity of the Nerf “blaster” toy gun has created an active market for inexpensive off-brand versions of the Nerf darts, but new data from Virginia Tech suggests that the off-brand darts are two to three times more likely to cause eye inju...

– Virginia Tech


New Deposition Technique Puts the Heat on Silicon

Research offers cost-effective development of germanium, more efficient semiconductor than silicon

– Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

The Journal of Applied Physics


Scientists Make First Observations of How a Meteor-Like Shock Turns Silica Into Glass

Studies at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have made the first real-time observations of how silica – an abundant material in the Earth’s crust – easily transforms into a dense glass when hit with a massive sh...

– SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

A.E. Gleason et al., Nature Communications, 14 November 2017 (10.1038/s41467-017-01791-y)


Fossil That Fills Missing Evolutionary Link Named After UChicago Professors

Scientists recently announced the discovery of a fossil that fills a missing evolutionary link—the first known member of the modern bryozoans to grow up into a structure. Called Jablonskipora kidwellae, it is named after UChicago geophysical scient...

– University of Chicago

Papers in Paleontology


Unlocking the Secrets of Ebola

Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebol...

– Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cell Host & Microbe


Detailed View of Immune Proteins Could Lead to New Pathogen-Defense Strategies

Biologists at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley used cryo-EM to resolve the structure of a ring of proteins used by the immune system to summon support when under attack, providing new insight into potential strategies for protection from pathogens. The r...

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Science

includes video


Florida First Detectors Help ID Invasive Plant Pests Before They Spread

Florida has the most invasive species of any state in the country, and half of the insects, reptiles, arachnids and crustaceans imported into the United States come through Florida ports, University of Florida experts say. So, UF/IFAS has teamed up w...

– University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Strategic Focus Area "Advanced Manufacturing" Launched

Industry and science are searching for answers to the challenges of digitization – including in production. In order to supply Switzerland with the necessary expertise for the future, the ETH Domain initiated the Strategic Focus Area (SFA) Advanced...

– Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Empa media release


Aquatic Plant May Help Remove Contaminants From Lakes

A tiny aquatic plant called duckweed might be a viable option for remove phosphorus, nitrates, nitrites and even heavy metals from lakes, ponds and slow-moving waterbodies.

– South Dakota State University


Where to Catch Engineers? In Their Inboxes

Engineers and technical professionals overwhelmingly find value in work-related emails and e-newsletters from publications and vendors, according to new research from IEEE GlobalSpec Media Solutions and Trew Marketing, “Smart Marketing for Engineer...

– IEEE GlobalSpec


Penn State Team Wins $7M Award to Enlist Insects as Allies for Food Security

A Penn State-led research team is hoping to enlist insects as allies in an effort to make crops more tolerant of environmental stressors, after the crops are already growing in the greenhouse or field.

– Penn State College of Engineering


NYSERDA and Clarkson University Announce Discovery of New Process to Reduce Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Stored Wood Pellets

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Clarkson University discovered a new process to eliminate the release of dangerous carbon monoxide gas from wood pellets in storage. The use of wood pellet boilers and stoves to r...

– Clarkson University

SciWire Announcements


UF/IFAS Citrus REC Celebrates 100th Anniversary: See How Science Helps Agriculture

University of Florida, citrus growers to celebrate a 100-year partnership.

– University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Argonne to Install Comanche System to Explore ARM Technology for High-Performance Computing

Argonne National Laboratory is collaborating with Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) to provide system software expertise and a development ecosystem for a future high-performance computing (HPC) system based on 64-bit ARM processors.

– Argonne National Laboratory


Vanderbilt Astronomers Continue International Effort to Map and Analyze Universe in Greater Detail Than Ever

Vanderbilt astronomers will join the 5th generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study nearby solar systems with the potential to harbor life

– Vanderbilt University

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Embargo expired on 16-Nov-2017 at 11:00 ET


The ACR Data Science Institute™ Structures Artificial Intelligence Development to Optimize Radiology Care

The American College of Radiology Data Science Institute™ (DSI) will provide the framework, strategy and focus to move artificial intelligence (AI) from concept into everyday radiology practice.

– American College of Radiology (ACR)

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