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Newswise SciWire - Science News for Journalists
Newswise SciWire
Monday, November 27, 2017

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Science News

24-Nov-2017


Military Sexual Trauma Among Men Is Prevalent and Predicts Alcohol Problems

Military sexual trauma (MST) is defined as sexual harassment and/or sexual trauma experienced during the course of military service. It includes uninvited or unwanted verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature, such as attention, verbal remarks, t...

– Research Society on Alcoholism

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

Embargo expired on 24-Nov-2017 at 10:00 ET


To Address Hunger Effectively, First Check the Weather, Says New Study

Understanding the climate context is important is determining how to best respond to food insecurity, according to a study of nearly 2,000 smallholder farms in Africa and Asia. Rainfall patterns determined whether financial supports or agricultural i...

– University of Vermont

Scientific Reports

Embargo expired on 24-Nov-2017 at 05:00 ET


New Study Finds Timing Is Key in Keeping Organic Matter in Wet Soils

Published recently in the peer-reviewed academic journal Nature Communications, the findings show periodically flooded soils may actually lose organic matter at accelerated rates.

– Iowa State University

Embargo expired on 24-Nov-2017 at 05:00 ET


WCS and Iranian Scientists Collaborate on New Field Guide on Wildlife Diseases

WCS and Iranian scientists are collaborating to tackle wildlife diseases – a rapidly growing threat affecting many of Asia’s remaining great wildlife assemblages.

– Wildlife Conservation Society

23-Nov-2017


Scientists Find Key to Regenerating Blood Vessels

Florida researchers have identified a signaling pathway that is essential for angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. The findings, published in Nature Communications, may improve current strategies to improve blood f...

– Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute

Nature Communications; CA125255; CBET-1403535, National Science Foundation ; 4BB17, Bankhead-Coley Cancer Research Program

Embargo expired on 23-Nov-2017 at 05:00 ET


‘Lost’ 99% of Ocean Microplastics to Be Identified with Dye?

The smallest microplastics in our oceans – which go largely undetected and are potentially harmful – could be more effectively identified using an innovative and inexpensive new method, developed by researchers at the University of Warwick.

– University of Warwick

Environmental Science & Technology


NUS Scientists Develop Artificial Photosynthesis Device for Greener Ethylene Production

A team of scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed a prototype device that mimics natural photosynthesis to produce ethylene gas using only sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. The novel method, which produces ethylene ...

– National University of Singapore

Ren, D., Loo, N. W., Gong, L., & Yeo, B. S. (2017). Continuous Production of Ethylene from Carbon Dioxide and Water Using Interm

includes video

22-Nov-2017


Icebound Detector Reveals How Ghostly Neutrinos Are Stopped Cold

Famously, neutrinos, the nearly massless particles that are a fundamental component of the universe, can zip through a million miles of lead without skipping a beat. Now, in a critical measurement that may one day help predict new physics beyond the ...

– University of Wisconsin-Madison

Nature November 22, 2017

Embargo expired on 22-Nov-2017 at 13:00 ET

includes video


How the Earth Stops High-Energy Neutrinos in Their Tracks

A research collaboration including scientists from Berkeley Lab has demonstrated that the Earth stops high-energy neutrinos – particles that only very rarely interact with matter.

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Nature, Nov. 22, 2017

Embargo expired on 22-Nov-2017 at 13:00 ET

includes video


High Yield, Protein with Soybean Gene

Soybean growers face a challenge. It has proved difficult to develop soybean varieties with both high protein levels and high yields.

– American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)

Crop Science, August 23, 2017

Embargo expired on 22-Nov-2017 at 09:00 ET


Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing

A review article in the December 2017 issue of SLAS Technology provides important information for life sciences and technology professionals in academia and industry and members of the general public who are interested in antibiotic resistance, gener...

– SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)

SLAS Technology


Workouts to Remember: New Research Suggests High-Intensity Exercise Boosts Memory

The health advantages of high-intensity exercise are widely known but new research from McMaster University points to another major benefit: better memory. The findings could have implications for an aging population which is grappling with the ...

– McMaster University

Journal of Cognitive Science


Solar Cell Discovery Opens a New Window to Powering Tomorrow’s Cities

Windows that generate electricity may have a clearer path to prominent roles in buildings of the future due to an Argonne-led discovery.

– Argonne National Laboratory

Nanoscale, Jul-2017


New Discovery to Accelerate Development of Salt-Tolerant Grapevines

A recent discovery by Australian scientists is likely to improve the sustainability of the Australian wine sector and significantly accelerate the breeding of more robust salt-tolerant grapevines.

– University of Adelaide

New Phytologist


Pioneers of High-Performance Computing Library Reunite

The founding developers of the Message Passing Interface reunited for a one-day symposium celebrating the 25th anniversary of the common language they created to allow highly parallelized and diverse computer processors to communicate.

– Argonne National Laboratory

21-Nov-2017


Bursting Citrus Peel Oil Glands Inspire New Approach for Microjetting Fluids

When was the last time you took a close look at an orange, lime or lemon peel? Outer citrus peels are covered with tiny oil glands or cavities that can explode in an outward direction, often spraying toward you, if bent in an attempt to gain access t...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 21-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET

includes video


Snoring Sounds Provide Insight for Obstructive Airway Disorders

Often unnoticed by the patient, Obstructive Sleep Apnea results in fragmented sleep patterns causing daytime fatigue and cardiovascular problems. However, the question remains of how to differentiate normal snoring from sleep apnea. Researchers will ...

– American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics

70th annual meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics

Embargo expired on 21-Nov-2017 at 08:00 ET


Good Cells Gone Bad

A new study from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is the first to show precisely how a process in nerve cells called the S-nitrosylation (SNO) reaction—which can be caused by aging, pesticides and pollution—may contribute to Parkinson’s di...

– Scripps Research Institute

Cell Reports, Nov. 21, 2017; R01 NS086890; P01 ES016738; DP1 DA041722; RF1 AG057409; R01 AG056259; P30 NS076411; P41 GM103533; R37 HD045022...

Embargo expired on 21-Nov-2017 at 12:00 ET


Early Adolescent Drinking Increases Risk of Problem Drinking by Age 17

Early-age drinking is common in many western nations; for example, 54 percent of Australian 14- to 19-year olds have reported past-year alcohol use. Although early-age drinking has been associated with developing later alcohol problems, findings have...

– Research Society on Alcoholism

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

Embargo expired on 21-Nov-2017 at 10:00 ET


Nano-Watch Has Steady Hands

An international team from the Universities of Vienna, Duisburg-Essen and Tel Aviv have created a nanomechanical hand to show the time of an electronic clock, by spinning a tiny cylinder using light. A silicon nanorod, less than a thousandth of a mil...

– University of Vienna

Nature Communications


Recent Field Tests Highlight Collaborations for Bomb Squad Response

S&T led an August 2017 vehicle-born IED experimentation assessment with representatives of the Michigan State Police Bomb Squad, New Jersey State Police, Saint Paul (Minnesota) Police, U.S. Air Force and the Canadian Air Force.

– Homeland Security's Science & Technology Directorate


Watching Atoms Move in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals Reveals Clues to Improving Solar Cells

The discovery of nanoscale changes deep inside hybrid perovskites could shed light on developing low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. Using X-ray beams and lasers, a team of researchers led by the University of California San Diego discovered how t...

– University of California San Diego

Advanced Materials, Nov-2017; DE-SC0012118; ACI-1053575


Researchers Discover Specific Tumor Environment That Triggers Cells to Metastasize

A team of bioengineers and bioinformaticians at the University of California San Diego have discovered how the environment surrounding a tumor can trigger metastatic behavior in cancer cells. Specifically, when tumor cells are confined in a dense env...

– University of California San Diego

Nature Communications


Kentucky Researchers First to Produce High Grade Rare Earths From Coal

University of Kentucky researchers have produced nearly pure rare earth concentrates from Kentucky coal using an environmentally-conscious and cost-effective process, a groundbreaking accomplishment in the energy industry.

– University of Kentucky


Top-Flight Rheometer Allows for Outside-the-Box Research

Thanks to a loan from instrument manufacturer Anton Paar, Cornell University has a state-of-the-art rheometer that will allow those students to perform those experiments on campus. Anton Paar has provided Cornell with one of its high-end rheometers, ...

– Cornell University


To Forget or to Remember? Memory Depends on Subtle Brain Signals, Scientists Find

Understanding how brains actively erase memories may open new understanding of memory loss and aging, and open the possibility of new treatments for neurodegenerative disease.

– Scripps Research Institute

Cell Reports, Nov. 2017; 4R37NS019904; 5R01NS052351; 1R35NS097224; DA036596; DA026405; MH105482


Rainfall Can Indicate That Mosquito-Borne Epidemics Will Occur Weeks Later

A new study demonstrates that outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.

– University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences

PLOS One


Climate Change Models of Bird Impacts Pass the Test

A major study looking at changes in where UK birds have been found over the past 40 years has validated the latest climate change models being used to forecast impacts on birds and other animals.

– University of Adelaide

Global Change Biology


The First Conference of Parties to the Minamata Convention

BRI attended the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Minamata Convention on Mercury (COP1), which took place from September 24-29, 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. The theme of the Conference was "Make Mercury History."

– Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI)

includes video


Designing New Metal Alloys Using Engineered Nanostructures

Stony Brook assistant professor Jason Trelewicz uses the electron microscopy and computing resources at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials to characterize nanoscale structures in metals mixed with other elements. The goal of his res...

– Brookhaven National Laboratory


PPPL Scientists Deliver New High-Resolution Diagnostic to National Laser Facility

Scientists from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have built and delivered a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer for the largest and most powerful laser facility in the world.

– Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


Infectious diseases: CTRL + ALT + Delete

Gene editing holds great promise for ‘deleting’ diseases from human bodies. Sandia National Laboratories is now working to make this technology safer and to ensure that one day it can be delivered into humans without triggering adverse immune sy...

– Sandia National Laboratories


Mathematics Professor Plays Games with Infinity

“I work in an area of pure mathematics called set theory, a rich and beautiful subject whose fundamental concepts permeate virtually every branch of mathematics,” said Cunningham, professor of mathematics at Buffalo State.

Expert Available

– SUNY Buffalo State

20-Nov-2017


A Curious Quirk Brings Organic Diode Lasers One Step Closer

A team of researchers from Penn State and Princeton University have taken a big step toward creating a diode laser from a hybrid organic-inorganic material that can be deposited from solution on a laboratory benchtop.

– Penn State Materials Research Institute

Nature Photonics Nov-2017

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 11:00 ET


Rise in Oxygen Levels Link to Ancient Explosion of Life, Researchers Find

A team of researchers, including a faculty member and postdoctoral fellow from Washington University in St. Louis, found that oxygen levels appear to increase at about the same time as a three-fold increase in biodiversity during the Ordovician Perio...

– Washington University in St. Louis

Nature Geoscience, Nov-2017

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 11:00 ET


Researchers Pin Down One Source of a Potent Greenhouse Gas

Researchers have discovered the first methane-producing microbe that is active in an oxygen-rich environment -- a finding that suggests today's global climate models may be misjudging the amount of methane being released into the atmosphere.

– Ohio State University

Nature Communications


Nanoparticles Could Allow for Faster, Better Medicine

Gold nanoparticles could help make drugs act more quickly and effectively, according to new research conducted at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

– Binghamton University, State University of New York

Nanotoxicology, Sept-2017


Age and Gut Bacteria Contribute to MS Disease Progression, According to Rutgers Study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29078267

– Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

PNAS, Oct. 31, 2017. Vol. 144 n. 44


Astronomers Reveal Nearby Stars That Are Among The Oldest In Our Galaxy

Astronomers have discovered some of the oldest stars in our Milky Way galaxy by determining their locations and velocities, according to a study led by scientists at Georgia State University.

– Georgia State University

The Astronomical Journal


Biomechanical Model Could Reduce Wobbling Of Pedestrian Bridges, Study Finds

The dangerous wobbling of pedestrian bridges could be reduced by using biomechanically inspired models of pedestrian response to bridge motion and a mathematical formula to estimate the critical crowd size at which bridge wobbling begins, according t...

– Georgia State University

Science Advances


Quantum Dots Amplify Light with Electrical Pumping

In a breakthrough development, Los Alamos scientists have shown that they can successfully amplify light using electrically excited films of the chemically synthesized semiconductor nanocrystals known as quantum dots.

– Los Alamos National Laboratory

Nature Materials


Study Pinpoints Arctic Shorebird Decline

A new study co-authored by WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) addresses concerns over the many Arctic shorebird populations in precipitous decline. Evident from the study is that monitoring and protection of habitat where the birds breed, winter, an...

– Wildlife Conservation Society

The Auk


New Research Details Genetic Resistance to Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybeans

Incorporating a combination of genes from the model plant Arabidopsis may build high levels of resistance to sudden death syndrome in soybeans, according to research from an Iowa State University agronomist. A recently published study points to one g...

– Iowa State University

Plant Physiology


Ancient Barley Took High Road to China, Changed to Summer Crop in Tibet

First domesticated 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, wheat and barley took vastly different routes to China, with barley switching from a winter to both a winter and summer crop during a thousand-year detour along the south...

– Washington University in St. Louis

PLOS One; PLOS One


Imaging Technique Unlocks the Secrets of 17th Century Artists

The secrets of 17th century artists can now be revealed, thanks to 21st century signal processing. Using modern high-speed scanners and the advanced signal processing techniques, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are peering through ...

– Georgia Institute of Technology

Scientific Reports


Research Becomes Reality in Study of Fire Impact on Sonoma Water Resources

Catastrophic fires in Northern California burned more than 110,000 acres in Sonoma and Napa counties last month – including 8 percent of the Russian River watershed. Now with the rainy season underway Berkeley Lab’s research – which seeks to un...

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

release online


DHS S&T"s Homemade Explosive Characterization Program: Keeping Americans Safe

DHS S&T's Homemade Explosives (HME) Characterization Program provides mission critical data collection, measurement of physical properties of threat materials, risk mitigation and modeling, and support for first responders against the terrorist threa...

– Homeland Security's Science & Technology Directorate


GraphBLAS: Building Blocks For High Performance Graph Analytics

After nearly five years of collaboration between researchers in academia, industry and national research laboratories—including Berkeley Lab's Aydın Buluç—GraphBLAS, a collection of standardized building blocks for graph algorithms in the langu...

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


New Device Boosts Road Time for Tesla, Leaf Drivers

Both batteries could work about 50 percent longer with a device provisionally patented by Vanderbilt University engineers.

– Vanderbilt University

SciWire Announcements


Five Brookhaven Lab Scientists Named 2017 American Physical Society Fellows

Anatoly Frenkel, Morgan May, Rachid Nouicer, Eric Stach, and Peter Steinberg were recognized for their outstanding contributions to astrophysics, materials physics, and nuclear physics.

– Brookhaven National Laboratory


Applied Mathematician Qiang Du Elected an AAAS Fellow

Qiang Du, the Fu Foundation Professor of Applied Mathematics, has been elected a 2017 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) for his “distinguished contributions to the field of applied and computational mathematic...

– Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science


DHS S&T's ATAK Changes the Situational Awareness Game for Responders

Operators can now see who and where all actions is happening on a mobile screen and even communicate with team members from different agencies and do it in a multitude of ways.

– Homeland Security's Science & Technology Directorate


Two Los Alamos Scientists Honored by AAAS

Prominent researchers Angel E. Garcia and Laura Smilowitz of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been named Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Election as a Fellow of AAAS is an honor bestowed upon Association ...

– Los Alamos National Laboratory


Argonne Scientists Capture Several R&D 100 Awards

Innovative technologies developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory recently earned several R&D 100 Awards.

– Argonne National Laboratory


ORNL Wins Nine R&D 100 Awards

Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have received nine R&D 100 Awards in recognition of their significant advancements in science and technology.

– Oak Ridge National Laboratory


Jefferson Lab Scientist Selected to Receive Francis Slack Award

Dr. Hari Areti, has been selected to receive the Francis G. Slack Award, established by the Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society, to honor excellence in service to Physics in the Southeastern U.S.

– Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility


Argonne Appoints Chief of Staff

Megan Clifford has been named Chief of Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, effective January 1, 2018.

– Argonne National Laboratory


Hong Named Gallogly Chair

Yang Hong has served as a member of the University of Oklahoma School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science since 2007 and holds the titles of Presidential Research Professor

– University of Oklahoma, Gallogly College of Engineering


Four Rutgers Professors Named Fellows of AAAS

Four Rutgers University professors have been named fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), an honor bestowed by their peers for scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance human knowledge. The honore...

– Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Rutgers Today

Embargo expired on 20-Nov-2017 at 11:00 ET


Physicist David Gates Named Editor-in-Chief of Plasma, a New Online Journal

Article announces David Gates' appointment as editor-in-chief of Plasma magazine

– Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


Ethan Schreier Recognized by the AAAS for His Work in Advancing Science

Dr. Ethan J. Schreier, who recently retired as president of Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), has been named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

– Associated Universities, Inc.


Save the Date: Acoustical Society of America Fall Meeting in New Orleans, Dec. 4-8

Acoustical waves and vibrations allow us to hear and experience the world with fuller sensory stimulation. Acoustics has applications that cover a broad spectrum of topics including anthropogenic noise in marine environments, the dangers of hospital ...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

The Acoustical Society of America’s fall meeting


Missouri S&T Geologist Named AAAS Fellow

WASHINGTON _ Dr. Francisca Oboh-Ikuenobe of Missouri University of Science and Technology has been named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) for her contributions to the advancement of palynology ─ the study o...

– Missouri University of Science and Technology


Eight Los Alamos innovations win R&D 100 Awards

Eight Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies won R&D 100 Awards last week at R&D Magazine’s annual ceremony in Orlando, Florida.

– Los Alamos National Laboratory


Penn Medicine’s Anil K. Rustgi and Hongzhe Li Named 2017 AAAS Fellows

  PHILADELPHIA—Anil K. Rustgi, MD, chief of the division of Gastroenterology and T. Grier Miller Professor of Medicine and Genetics, and Hongzhe Li, PhD, a professor of biostatistics in Biostatistics and Epidemiology, both at the Perelman School o...

– Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania


UWM’s Junhong Chen Named One of the World’s Most Impactful Researchers

A distinguished professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has been named one of world’s most cited academic researchers in the field of engineering by Clarivate Analytics, a leading company that monitors scholarly data.

– University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee


Perimeter Institute Launches a New Centre for the Universe

A new research hub at Perimeter Institute seeks to shed light on some of the most profound mysteries in modern physics, from the big bang and black holes to dark matter and dark energy.

– Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

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