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Newswise SciWire - Science News for Journalists
Newswise SciWire
Thursday, May 23, 2019

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Science News

23-May-2019


Scientific Evidence Boosts Action for Activists, Decreases Action for Scientists

When a proposed policy has the backing of scientific evidence, it may boost the likelihood that activists will get involved with the issue. However, references to scientific evidence seem to dampen the activism of scientific experts, according to re...

– Penn State Institute for CyberScience

Journal of Behavioral Public Administration

22-May-2019


Unexpected observation of ice at low temperature, high pressure questions ice, water theory

Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studying super-cold states of water discovered a pathway to the unexpected formation of dense, crystalline phases of ice thought to exist beyond Earth’s limits. Their findings, reported in Nature, challen...

– Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Nature, May-2019

Embargo expired on 22-May-2019 at 13:00 ET


New study shows crowdsourced traffic data could save lives

A new UCI-led pilot study finds, on average, Waze "crash alerts" occur two minutes and 41 seconds prior to their corresponding California Highway Patrol (CHP)-reported crash. These minutes could mean the difference between life and death.

– University of California, Irvine

JAMA Surgery

Embargo expired on 22-May-2019 at 11:00 ET


Genetic Discovery May Improve Corn Quality, Yields

Researchers may be able improve corn yields and nutritional value after discovering genetic regulators that synthesize starch and protein in the widely eaten grain, according to a Rutgers-led study. The research, published in the journal Proceedings ...

– Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Rutgers Today


NUS pilot study opens new possibilities for AI to enhance cognitive performance

Results of a pilot study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore provided evidence that an artificial intelligence known as CURATE.AI has the potential to enhance learning, and could pave the way for promising applications ...

– National University of Singapore

Advanced Therapeutics


Natural environments favour ‘good’ bacteria

A new study has shown that restoring environments to include a wider range of species can promote ‘good’ bacteria over ‘bad’ – with potential benefits for human health.

– University of Adelaide

Environmental International


Counter-intuitive climate change solution

A relatively simple process could help turn the tide of climate change while also turning a healthy profit. That's one of the hopeful visions outlined in a new Stanford-led paper that highlights a seemingly counterintuitive solution: converting one g...

– Stanford University

Nature Sustainability


New study finds distinct microbes living next to corals

Symbiotic algae living inside corals provide those animals with their vibrant color, as well as many of the nutrients they need to survive.

– Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Limnology and Oceanography


Soft, social robot brings coziness to homes — and classrooms

A new social robot that can be customized with handcrafted material, such as wood and wool, brings simplicity and fun to home robotics — and will soon be used to help teach math to fourth graders.

– Cornell University

Association for Computing Machinery Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, March 2019


3-million-year-old fossilized mouse reveals evolutionary secrets of color

The evolutionary use of colour for mammal's survival in the wild is evident from, red foxes, to zebras. Today an international team,

– University of Manchester

Nature Communications


Detecting bacteria in space

A new genomic approach provides a glimpse into the diverse bacterial ecosystem on the International Space Station.

– Universite de Montreal

Environmental Microbiology


Data science helps engineers discover new materials for solar cells and LEDs

UC San Diego engineers have developed a high-throughput computational method to design new materials for next generation solar cells and LEDs. Their approach generated 13 new material candidates for solar cells and 23 new candidates for LEDs. Calcula...

– University of California San Diego

Energy & Environmental Science, May-2019; 20164974; ACI-1550404


A New Collider Concept Would Take Quantum Theories to an Extreme

A new idea for smashing beams of elementary particles into one another could reveal how light and matter interact under extreme conditions that may exist on the surfaces of exotic astrophysical objects, in powerful cosmic light bursts and star explos...

– SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Physical Review Letters, 16 May 2019 (10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.190404)


New Study Assesses the Roles, Needs, and Priorities of the Environmental Health Workforce

WACO, Texas (May 22, 2019) – The National Environmental Health Association’s (NEHA) Journal of Environmental Health recently published the article "Uncovering Environmental Health: An Initial Assessment of the Profession’s Health Department Wor...

– Baylor University

Journal of Environmental Health


Summit Charts a Course to Uncover the Origins of Genetic Diseases

A team led by Ivaylo Ivanov of Georgia State University used the 200-petaflop IBM AC922 Summit system, the world’s smartest and most powerful supercomputer, to develop an integrative model of the transcription preinitiation complex (PIC), a complex...

– Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, May-2019


Why one UB scientist is studying dust

"The level of dust in the air can have far-reaching effects on climate, but there are still a lot of unknowns in the field,” says Evans, PhD, an atmospheric scientist."

Expert Available

– University at Buffalo

21-May-2019


Life in Evolution’s Fast Lane

Most living things have a suite of genes dedicated to repairing their DNA, limiting the rate at which their genomes change through time.

– PLOS

Plos Biology

Embargo expired on 21-May-2019 at 14:00 ET

includes video


New Technique Promises Improved Metastatic Prostate Cancer Detection

Results reported in Biomicrofluidics promise a new way to detect prostate cancer through a simple device, which forces cell samples through channels less than 10 microns wide. When prostate cancer cells are forced through, the metastatic cells exhibi...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Biomicrofluidics

Embargo expired on 21-May-2019 at 11:00 ET


In a first, researchers identify reddish coloring in an ancient fossil – a 3-million-year-old mouse

Researchers have for the first time detected chemical traces of red pigment in an ancient fossil – an exceptionally well-preserved mouse, not unlike today’s field mice, that roamed the fields of what is now the German village of Willershausen aro...

– SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Nature Communications

Embargo expired on 21-May-2019 at 05:00 ET


Fearful customers sensitive to size and scope of a data breach while angry customers are not, research finds

Customers who feel afraid in the wake of a data breach care more about the size and scope of the breach than do angry customers, according to research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

– Binghamton University, State University of New York

Journal of Business Research,


Laser Focus Shines Light on How Nanoparticles Form

Titan supercomputer tells origin story of nanoparticle size distributions with large-scale simulations.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Nanoscale 10(15), 6900 (2018). [DOI: 10.1039/C7NR08614H]


Toward zero hunger: More food or a smarter food system?

When thinking about ways to end global hunger, many scholars focus too narrowly on increasing crop yields while overlooking other critical aspects of the food system.

– University of Michigan

World Development


Scientists use molecular tethers and chemical 'light sabers' to construct platforms for tissue engineering

University of Washington researchers developed a strategy to keep proteins intact and functional in synthetic biomaterials for tissue engineering. Their approach modifies proteins at a specific point so that they can be chemically tethered to scaffol...

– University of Washington

Nature Materials


NUS engineers design solutions to tackle low frequency noise

A team of engineers from the National University of Singapore has designed a set of novel noise attenuating blocks that targets low frequency noise.

– National University of Singapore


How to program materials

Can the properties of composite materials be predicted? Empa scientists have mastered this feat and thus can help achieve research objectives faster. This leads, for instance, to better recycling techniques and electrically conductive synthetic mater...

– Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Polymer Degradation and Stability Volume 160, February 2019, Pages 218-228; Empa media release


Net carbon-negative electricity source may offer economical alternative

Researchers say burning a mixture of coal and crop residue biomass might provide a cost-effective, net carbon-negative electricity source that can be scaled to commercial levels in China in order to meet global temperature objectives by mid-century. ...

– Penn State College of Engineering

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Formation of the moon brought water to Earth

The Earth is unique in our solar system: It is the only terrestrial planet with a large amount of water and a relatively large moon

– University of Münster

Nature Astronomy


High-quality jadeite tool discovered in underwater ancient salt works in Belize

Anthropologists discovered a tool made out of high-quality translucent jadeite with an intact rosewood handle at a site where the ancient Maya processed salt in Belize.

– Louisiana State University

Antiquity


Gas insulation could be protecting an ocean inside Pluto

Joint press release by Hokkaido University, Earth-Life Science Institute at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokushima University, Osaka University and Kobe University.

– Hokkaido University

Nature Geoscience


Statistical model could predict future disease outbreaks

Several University of Georgia researchers teamed up to create a statistical method that may allow public health and infectious disease forecasters to better predict disease reemergence, especially for preventable childhood infections such as measles ...

– University of Georgia

PLOS Computational Biology


Strain Enables New Applications of 2D Materials

Superconductors’ never-ending flow of electrical current could provide new options for energy storage and superefficient electrical transmission and generation. But the signature zero electrical resistance of superconductors is reached only below a...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Journal of Applied Physics


Flamingoes, Elephants and Sharks: How do Blind Adults Learn About Animal Appearance?

They’ve never seen animals like hippos and sharks but adults born blind have rich insight into what they look like, a new Johns Hopkins University study found.

– Johns Hopkins University

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May-2019


New Argonne Battery Design Offers ​“Solid” Advantage

In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, researchers have identified a new boundary layer that emerges between a lithium metal anode and a lithium transition metal oxide (LLZO) electrolyte, potentially ...

– Argonne National Laboratory

Advanced Energy Materials, March 27, 2019


‘Ocean Outbreak’ tells tales of a rising tide in trouble

After the United Nations’ ominous warning on May 6 that a million of Earth’s species are threatened with extinction, Drew Harvell’s new book, “Ocean Outbreak,” offers insight into the dynamics of infectious disasters by examining four senti...

– Cornell University


Southern Research Team Targets New, Safer Drugs for Malaria

Scientists at Southern Research’s Drug Discovery division have joined the fight against malaria through efforts aimed at discovering new drugs and improving the safety and efficacy of current antimalarial medicines.

– Southern Research

20-May-2019


How Earth’s mantle is like a Jackson Pollock painting

To geologists, the mantle is so much more than that. It’s a region that lives somewhere between the cold of the crust and the bright heat of the core. It’s where the ocean floor is born and where tectonic plates die. A new paper published today...

– University of Utah

Nature Geoscience

Embargo expired on 20-May-2019 at 11:00 ET


How plant viruses can be used to ward off pests and keep plants healthy

Imagine a technology that could target pesticides to treat specific spots deep within the soil, making them more effective at controlling infestations while limiting their toxicity to the environment. Researchers at the University of California San D...

– University of California San Diego

Nature Nanotechnology, May-2019; 1841848; EB021911

Embargo expired on 20-May-2019 at 11:00 ET


Extracting Signs of the Elusive Neutrino

Scientists use software to "develop" images that trace neutrinos' interactions in a bath of cold liquid argon.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Journal of Instrumentation 13, P07006 (2018); Journal of Instrumentation 13, P07007 (2018)


Research Highlights from 2019 ACSM Annual Meeting

The 2019 ACSM Basic Science World Congress focuses on biological and physiological mechanisms of exercise, circadian rhythm and sleep. Chaired by Karyn Esser, Ph.D., FACSM, from the University of Florida, this world congress brings together leading r...

– American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)


Preparing Low-Income Communities for Hurricane Begins with Outreach, Rutgers Study Finds

Governments seeking to help their most vulnerable residents prepare for hurricanes and other disasters should create community-based information campaigns ahead of time, according to a Rutgers study of economically disadvantaged New Jerseyans in the ...

– Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Wiley Online Library


Improving Isotope Supply for a Cancer-Fighting Drug

Production of actinium-227 ramps up for use in a drug to fight prostate cancer that has spread to bone.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

Applied Radiation and Isotopes 114, 19 (2016). [DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2016.05.002]


SLAS Discovery Announces its June Cover Article

The June cover of SLAS Discovery features cover article “A Perspective on Extreme Open Science: Companies Sharing Compounds without Restriction,” by Timothy M. Willson, Ph.D., a noted University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy (Chap...

– SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)

SLAS Discovery


Cutting the time on early disease diagnoses with extracellular vesicles

A research team led by the University of Notre Dame is working to cut the test time for disease biomarkers.

– University of Notre Dame

Nature Communications Biology


Driverless cars working together can speed up traffic by 35%

A fleet of driverless cars working together to keep traffic moving smoothly can improve overall traffic flow by at least 35 percent, researchers have shown.

– University of Cambridge

2019 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation


June’s SLAS Technology Special Collection on Sample Management Now Available

The June issue of SLAS Technology features the article, “Next Generation Compound Delivery to Support Miniaturized Biology,” which focuses on the challenges of changing the established screening paradigm to support the needs of modern drug discov...

– SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)

SLAS Technology


Why are gels elastic?

It's all about the locally glassy clusters. They are what give gels their spring, their elasticity--in everything from yogurt and toothpaste to fabric softeners and shoe insoles.

– University of Delaware

Nature Communications


UF/IFAS Urges Permeable Pavement to Help Reduce Pollutants

Permeable pavements are one of many tools in sustainable urban development. Others include rain gardens, cisterns and green roofs. UF/IFAS encourages designers, builders and governments to use the entire urban sustainability development toolbox, said...

– University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Sweet neutron science shines new light on dark chocolate’s tastiness

Canadian researchers used neutrons at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source to better understand how tempering affects chocolate's microstructure and how that relationship impacts taste.

– Oak Ridge National Laboratory


Artificial intelligence — an exciting new way to speed development of fusion energy

Feature introduces video of interview with physicist William Tang describing the role of artificial of intelligence in fusion research. Feature includes a link to the video

– Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


Dark Matter Sheds Light to Medical Technology

Dr. Drew Alton, associate professor of physics at Augustana University, is conducting research on how dark matter can be applied to improve future PET [positron emission tomography] detectors, which offer imaging scans that allow doctors to check for...

Expert Available

– Augustana University, South Dakota

SciWire Announcements


Research on exotic form of carbon could open new insight into fundamental chemistry

Todd Hudnall, an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Texas State University, has been awarded a three-year, $195,000 grant from the Welch Foundation to develop methods to synthesize and prepare diborylcarbenes, an e...

– Texas State University


Penn State partners with IISE on award to recognize innovation in service systems engineering

At its May 18-21 conference and expo in Orlando, Florida, the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE) partnered with Penn State to recognize the innovative techniques organizations are using to improve the performance of service industri...

– Penn State College of Engineering


Ames Laboratory names James Morris Chief Research Officer

Dr. James Morris has been named Chief Research Officer at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Ames Laboratory. His appointment follows an extensive search and will be effective June 17, 2019.

– Ames Laboratory


Baylor University Joins Research Team Seeking to Transform U.S. Water System

WACO, Texas (May 22, 2019) – Baylor University has partnered with four Department of Energy laboratories and more than a dozen universities in a research alliance to address the country’s water security issues through desalination.

– Baylor University


Berkeley Lab Project to Pinpoint Methane ‘Super Emitters’

Methane, a potent greenhouse gas that traps about 30 times more heat than carbon dioxide, is commonly released from rice fields, dairies, landfills, and oil and gas facilities – all of which are plentiful in California. Now Berkeley Lab has been aw...

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


Brent Seales Awarded Prestigious Mellon Grant, Poised to Solve 2,000-Year-Old Mystery

Thanks, in large part, to a $2 million grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, UK's Brent Seales finally has the materials access, funding support and technical approach needed to solve the 2,000-year-old mystery wrapped inside the Herculaneum sc...

– University of Kentucky


Brookhaven's Mircea Cotlet Named a Battelle "Inventor of the Year"

The global science and technology organization Battelle recognized materials scientist Mircea Cotlet of Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials for his research in applying self-assembly methods to control the interfaces between nanomate...

– Brookhaven National Laboratory

Particle & Particle System Characterization


Sounding the Alarm - Small Device Alerts Responders to Big Changes to Thermal Conditions

Initially funded under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Small Business Innovation Research program, Burn Saver was developed by TDA Research Inc. in collaboration with the DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T).

– Homeland Security's Science And Technology Directorate


Four scientists at PPPL awarded national and international honors

Feature profiles four PPPL scientists who have received high honors.

– Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


APS Announces New Officers, Councilors for Coming Year

The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce its new leadership: President Meredith Hay, PhD, FAPS; President-elect Linda Samuelson, PhD, FAPS; and Councilors Sue Bodine, PhD, FAPS; Jason Carter, PhD; and Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, P...

– American Physiological Society (APS)

American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology

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