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Newswise SciWire
Monday, December 9, 2019

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Science News

09-Dec-2019


Machine learning can help us understand conversations about death

Researchers at the University of Vermont have used machine learning and natural language processing to better understand end-of-life conversations. Borrowing techniques used to study fiction, where algorithms analyze manuscripts to identify story typ...

– University of Vermont

Patient Education and Counselling

Embargo expired on 09-Dec-2019 at 00:05 ET


Dendrites filtering neuron's excitement

In mere milliseconds trillions of chemical reactions ignite signals that travel across the billions of neurons in our brain. As we go through our daily lives and absorb new knowledge these neurons begin to modify themselves and change their signaling...

– Kyoto University

Journal of Neuroscience


Pioneering research gives fresh insight into 1 of the pivotal building blocks of life

Pioneering research gives fresh insight into one of the pivotal building blocks of life

– University of Exeter

Genes & Development


How saving the ozone layer in 1987 slowed global warming

The Montreal Protocol, an international agreement signed in 1987 to stop chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroying the ozone layer

– University of New South Wales

Environmental Research Letters


How Can Growing Seasons Be Extended?

High tunnels provide fresh, local vegetables in northern climes

– American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)


Robots: Will they walk among us?

For robots to be more useful around people, they’ll need to go where we go. But how? Oregon State University Associate Professor Jonathan Hurst thinks the answer is simple. Walking. But actually making a walking robot is no simple feat.

– Oregon State University, College of Engineering

06-Dec-2019


Fish Scattering Sound Waves Has Impact on Aquaculture

Fisheries acoustics have been studied for over 40 years to assess biomass and optimize aquaculture applications, and researchers in France have examined the phenomenon of how fish scatter acoustic waves in a dense school of fish contained in an open-...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) 2-6 December 2019

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 11:45 ET


Move Over Jules Verne -- Scientists Deploy Ocean Floats to Peer into Earth’s Interior

The release of more than 50 floating sensors, called Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers (MERMAIDs), is increasing the number of seismic stations around the planet. Scientists will use them to clarify the picture of the ...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 12:30 ET


Stormquakes: Powerful Storms Cause Seafloor Tremors

Stormquakes are a recently discovered phenomenon characterized by seismic activity originating at the ocean floor due to powerful storms. Heavy storms, like hurricanes or nor'easters, can create seismic waves as large as magnitude 3.5 quakes. These t...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 12:00 ET


New Ultra-Miniaturized Scope Less Invasive, Produces Higher Quality Images

Johns Hopkins engineers have created a new lens-free ultra-miniaturized endoscope, the size of a few human hairs in width, that is less bulky and can produce higher quality images.

– Johns Hopkins University

Science Advances, Dec-2019; R21EY028436; R21EY028381

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 14:00 ET


Astronomy fellowship demonstrates effective measures to dismantle bias, increase diversity in STEM

Joyce Yen of the University of Washington worked with the Heising-Simons Foundation to dismantle bias and promote diversity in a prominent grant that the Foundation awards to postdoctoral researchers. Here, Yen shares the ways bias can work against g...

– University of Washington

Nature Astronomy

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


Peanut Allergy Vaccine to Rewrite the Immune System

Peanut allergies could become a thing of the past as breakthrough research from the University of South Australia develops a radically novel vaccination that’s poised to cure the potentially life threatening condition.

– University of South Australia

Embargo expired on 06-Dec-2019 at 01:00 ET


Animated Videos Advance Adoption of Agriculture Techniques

In remote areas with low literacy rates, showing animated videos in the local language demonstrating agricultural techniques results in high retention and adoption rates of those techniques, found researchers from Michigan State University.

– Michigan State University

Information Technology for Development


Texas A&M researchers uncover the science behind zapping bacteria with ultraviolet light

In the perennial clash between man and microbe, ultraviolet light has emerged as one of man’s powerful tools against many pathogens. Although ultraviolet light can wipe out several germs, the exact mechanisms that orchestrate the radiation’s dama...

– Texas A&M University

PNAS


Multiplexed C dots track cancer cells to improve patient care

For more than a decade, researchers have used glowing nanoparticles called Cornell dots, or C dots, to illuminate cancer cells, target tumors and even induce cell death.

– Cornell University

Science Advances


Microcavities save organic semiconductors from going dark

More and more electronics manufacturers are favoring organic LED displays for smartphones, TVs and computers because they are brighter and offer a greater color range.

– Cornell University

Chemical Science


Has physics ever been deterministic?

Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna and the University of Geneva, have proposed a new interpretation of classical physics without real numbers. This new study challenges the traditional view of classical physic...

– University of Vienna

Journal


Gulf Coast corals face catastrophe

If coral reefs are the canary to the ocean's coal mine, it's getting awfully bleak in the Gulf of Mexico.

– Rice University

Frontiers in Marine Science


Second act: Used electric vehicle batteries charge up the grid

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed an innovative control system for repurposed electric vehicle battery packs to store electricity for home use and are scaling up the technology to a large, power grid-level project.

– Oak Ridge National Laboratory

IEEE ECCE Congress, Nov-2019; IEEE ECCE Congress, Nov-2019


How to Build a 3D Map of the Universe – and Why

In the 1980s, Saul Perlmutter at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and his collaborators realized that they could use data about supernovae to research the history of the universe. They expected to see th...

– Department of Energy, Office of Science


Antonino Miceli: Then and Now

Antonino Miceli is the group leader of the Detectors Group in the X-ray Science Division of the Advanced Photon Source at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, a senior fellow at the Northwestern Argonne Institute of Science ...

Expert Available

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

05-Dec-2019


Designing Workplaces with Sound Disturbances in Mind

Workplaces are full of sound, most of which is not helpful to workers trying to do their jobs. Scientists are using physics to understand how conversation, music and other ambient noise is experienced by individuals in a variety of work situations. T...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America Dec. 2-6, Hotel del Coronado San Diego

Embargo expired on 05-Dec-2019 at 16:45 ET


Can 3D-Printing Musical Instruments Produce Better Sound Than Traditional Instruments?

Music is an art, but it is also a science involving vibrating reeds and strings, sound waves and resonances. The study of acoustics can help scientists produce beautiful music even with musical instruments fashioned with high-tech methods, such as 3D...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America

Embargo expired on 05-Dec-2019 at 12:00 ET


Finding Meaning in ‘Rick and Morty,’ One Burp at a Time

One of the first things viewers of “Rick and Morty” might notice about Rick is his penchant for punctuating his speech with burps. Brooke Kidner has analyzed the frequency and acoustics of belching while speaking, and by zeroing in on the specifi...

– Acoustical Society of America (ASA)

178th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America

Embargo expired on 05-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


New study hints at complex decision-making in a single-cell organism

New study reveals hierarchy of behaviors in a single-cell organism The organism, S. roeselii, appears to “change its mind” and modify its response to repeated exposure to irritating particles Findings suggest certain single-cell organisms may h...

– Harvard Medical School

DGE1144152

Embargo expired on 05-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


More Than a Watchdog

Study in mice shows the nervous system not only detects the presence of Salmonella in the gut but actively stops the organism from infecting the body Nerves in the gut prevent Salmonella infection by shutting the cellular gates that allow bacteria t...

– Harvard Medical School

Cell

Embargo expired on 05-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET

includes video


Scientists see defects in potential new semiconductor

A research team has reported seeing, for the first time, atomic scale defects that dictate the properties of a new and powerful semiconductor. The study, published earlier this month in the journal Physical Review X, shows a fundamental aspect of how...

– Ohio State University

Physical Review X


How flowers adapt to their pollinators

The first flowering plants originated more than 140 million years ago in the early Cretaceous. They are the most diverse plant group on Earth with more than 300,000 species. In a new study in Communications Biology, evolutionary biologists around Agn...

– University of Vienna

Chemical Reviews


FSU Research: Microwave treatment is an inexpensive way to clean heavy metals from treated sewage

A team of Florida State University researchers studying new methods to remove toxic heavy metals from biosolids — the solid waste left over after sewage treatment — found the key is a brief spin through a microwave. The method removed three ti...

– Florida State University

Journal of Cleaner Production


Whales may owe their efficient digestion to millions of tiny microbes

Microbial communities inside whales may play an important role in the digestion of one of the ocean’s most abundant carbon-rich lipids, known as a wax ester.

– Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

International Society for Microbial Ecology


SDSC’s Comet Supercomputer Helps Researchers Predict Carbon Dioxide Levels

The Global Change Biology Journal earlier this year published findings related to the Effects of 21st Century Climate, Land Use, and Disturbances on Ecosystem Carbon Balance in California after using the San Diego Supercomputer Center’s Comet supe...

– University of California San Diego

18WSZL00TNC201802


Carbon emissions from volcanic rocks can create global warming -- study

Greenhouse gas emissions released directly from the movement of volcanic rocks are capable of creating massive global warming effects

– University of Birmingham

Nature Communications


How much will we eat in the future?

The amount of food needed to feed the world's population in the future is of vital importance. To date, scientists have only considered this question from the perspective of how much food people can afford to buy

– University of Göttingen

PLOS ONE


Nearly one-third of participants drop out of psychosocial substance use disorder treatments

People who abuse cigarettes, alcohol and/or heroin are less likely to drop out of a substance use disorder treatment than those who are addicted to cocaine, according to a new study led by a researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The ...

– University of Alabama at Birmingham

Society for the Study of Addiction


Internships fuel research for engineering students from Puerto Rico

The Consortium for Integrating Energy Systems in Engineering and Science Education, CIESESE, internship program, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration, connects engineering students from five Hispanic-serving institutions, includi...

– Sandia National Laboratories


Brookhaven Hosts Seven Teams for 2019 CyberForce CompetitionTM

Columbia, NYU, Northeastern, St. John’s, SUNY Albany, SCCC, and USMA at West Point participated in the nationwide cyberdefense competition.

– Brookhaven National Laboratory

CyberForce CompetitionTM


S&T Studies How K9 First Responders Can Join the Team in Active Shooter Scenarios

Canines are widely used by law enforcement agencies and first responders to protect the homeland in various ways. DHS S&T is studying how they might be used in new, non-traditional ways, like in active shooter scenarios, to detect potential explosive...

– Homeland Security's Science And Technology Directorate

SciWire Announcement


Yervant Terzian, who explored matter between stars, dies at 80

Yervant Terzian, the Tisch Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the Department of Astronomy at Cornell University, who studied the physical matter between stars, dedicated his career to education and chaired the department for two decades, died Nov. 2...

– Cornell University


Rutgers-led Team Launches Science and Medicine Research Initiative to Transform Health Care in New Jersey

At an event Thursday at Rutgers, thought leaders from academia, health care, government and the pharmaceutical industry discussed the future of scientific and clinical trial innovation in the state, as a result of an innovative consortium between Rut...

– Rutgers University-New Brunswick


GAIUS Networks, A Start-Up Co-Founded by NYU, NYU Abu Dhabi Researchers Chosen for Facebook Accelerator Program

GAIUS Networks, co-founded by researchers at New York University and NYU Abu Dhabi, has been selected for Facebook Accelerator London’s program—a 12-week session that pairs start-ups with the team at Facebook’s London lab.

– New York University


University of Kentucky Grant Seeks to Turn Coal Into Carbon Fiber

UK's Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has received a $1.8 million U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to transform coal tar pitch into high-value carbon fiber for use in aircraft, automobiles, sporting goods and other high-performance mate...

– University of Kentucky


Researchers open underwater 'living museum' in the Dominican Republic

In partnership with the government of the Dominican Republic, researchers at the Indiana University Center for Underwater Science have opened their fifth "Living Museum in the Sea" in the Caribbean country -- a continuation of the center's holistic a...

– Indiana University

includes video

SciWire Research Alert


Researchers discover potential key to extremely low-friction surfaces

– Penn State College of Engineering

Science Advances

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