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Thursday, December 12, 2019

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Science News

12-Dec-2019


How humans learnt to dance; from the Chimpanzee Conga

Psychologist observing two chimpanzees in a zoo have discovered that they performed a behaviour hitherto never seen, they coordinated together in a rhythmic social ritual.

– University of Warwick

Scientific Reports


Supporting Structures of Wind Turbines Contribute to Wind Farm Blockage Effect

Much about the aerodynamic effects of larger wind farms remains poorly understood. New work in this week’s Journal of Renewable and Sustainably Energy looks to provide more insight in how the structures necessary for wind farms affect air flow. Usi...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Sustainably Energy

11-Dec-2019


Social Media Contributes to Increased Perception of Food Technology as Risky Business

When it comes to food technology, the information shared on social media often trumps the facts put out by the scientific community and food experts, leading to the dissemination of disinformation, “fake news” and conspiracy theories. Nowhere is ...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 10:00 ET


Risk Analysis Critical Tool for Combating Human Trafficking

Each year, more than 40 million men, women and children are trafficked worldwide. It manifests in numerous forms and has grown into a multi-billion-dollar illegal enterprise that is difficult to detect, prosecute and examine. Risk analysis is a criti...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 12:00 ET


Risk Analysis Powers Air Pollution Solutions

Air pollution exposure threatens human health both outdoors and when polluted air infiltrates homes, offices, schools and vehicles. Exposure to certain particulate matter can cause respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous system issues, especially in ...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 17:00 ET


Why polar bears at sea have higher pollution levels than those staying on land

Arctic sea-ice is in decline, causing polar bears in the Barents Sea region to alter their feeding and hunting habits. Bears that follow sea-ice to offshore areas have higher pollutant levels than those staying on land — but why? A study in ACS’ ...

– American Chemical Society (ACS)

Environmental Science & Technology

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 08:00 ET


Mountain Goats’ Air Conditioning is Failing, Study Says

A new study in the journal PLOS One says Glacier National Park’s iconic mountain goats are in dire need of air conditioning.

– Wildlife Conservation Society

PLOS One

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 14:00 ET


The secret to a long life? For worms, a cellular recycling protein is key

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that worms live longer lives if they produce excess levels of a protein, p62, which recognizes toxic cell proteins that are tagged for destruction. The discovery, published i...

– Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute

Nature Communications; P40OD010440; 616499; 616499; AG058038; AG028664

Embargo expired on 11-Dec-2019 at 05:00 ET


Helping plant nurseries reduce runoff

Researchers identify production strategies to help manage phosphorus

– American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)

SCRI 2014- 51181-22372; Soil Science Society of America Journal


ALMA Spots Most Distant Dusty Galaxy Hidden in Plain Sight

Astronomers using ALMA have spotted the light of a massive galaxy seen just 970 million years after the Big Bang!

– National Radio Astronomy Observatory

The Astrophysical Journal


Scientists Link Decline of Baltic Cod to Hypoxia – and Climate Change

If you want to know how climate change and hypoxia -- the related loss of oxygen in the world’s oceans -- affect fish species such as the economically important Baltic cod, all you have to do is ask the fish. Those cod, at least, will tell you that...

– SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Biology Letters


Digging into diets: Researchers analyze artifacts to better understand ancient practices

New research from anthropologists at McMaster University and California State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB), is shedding light on ancient dietary practices, the evolution of agricultural societies and ultimately, how plants have become an import...

– McMaster University

Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports


Water common -- yet scarce -- in exoplanets

The most extensive survey of atmospheric chemical compositions of exoplanets to date has revealed trends that challenge current theories of planet formation and has implications for the search for water in the solar system and beyond.

– University of Cambridge

Astrophysical Journal Letters


High School Student Publishes Scientific Paper with Assistance from Texas Tech Professor

David Weindorf collaborated with Florida teenager Julia Kagiliery to determine the sulfur content of lignite coal using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and an optical color sensor.

– Texas Tech University

International Journal of Coal Geology


One step closer to living on Mars: NAU scientists contribute to NASA’s 'treasure map' of widespread water ice near planet’s surface

Northern Arizona University professor Christopher Edwards and postdoc Jennifer Buz are co-authors of a study published this week in Geophysical Research Letters that mapped several locations on Mars at high and mid-latitudes where water ice exists at...

– Northern Arizona University

Geophysical Research Letters


Project Aims to Improve Efficiency of Evaporation and Condensation in Critical Processes

Power generation, the heat in our homes, air-conditioning, even the manufacturing of some of the products we use each day rely on evaporation and condensation processes. Improving and controlling these phase-change phenomena could increase energy eff...

– Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)


Eavesdropping on the human microbiome uncovers 'potent' new antibiotics

The microbes populating the human body play an important role in health and disease, but with few exceptions, how individual microbial species affect health and disease states remains poorly understood. A new study by Princeton researcher Mohamed Abo...

– Princeton University

Science


Researchers develop first mathematical proof for key law of turbulence in fluid mechanics

What if engineers could design a better jet with mathematical equations that drastically reduce the need for experimental testing? Or what if weather prediction models could predict details in the movement of heat from the ocean into a hurricane?

– University of Maryland, College Park

SIAM Conference on Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PD19)


Researchers discover brain circuit linked to food impulsivity

A team of researchers that includes a faculty member at the University of Georgia has now identified a specific circuit in the brain that alters food impulsivity, creating the possibility scientists can someday develop therapeutics to address overeat...

– University of Georgia

Nature Communications


Azteca ant colonies move the same way leopards' spots form

What could Azteca ants in coffee farms in Mexico have in common with leopards' spots and zebras' stripes?

– University of Michigan

Bioscience


Forensic Chemist Proposes Sweat Testing Strip as Breathalyzer Replacement

Jan Halámek and his team of researchers at the University at Albany, led by Department of Chemistry graduate student Mindy Hair, are developing a sensing strip that can detect a person’s blood alcohol content (BAC) based on ethanol levels in a sma...

– University at Albany, State University of New York

Analytical Chemistry


Groups work better when stakes are gradually increased

A gradual approach to increasing the stakes of group coordination projects can improve overall team performance, according to a new research paper featuring faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

– Binghamton University, State University of New York

Management Science, Oct-2019


Scientists harvest energy from light using bio-inspired artificial cells

By replicating biological machinery with non-biological components, scientists have created artificial cells that convert light into chemical energy.

– Argonne National Laboratory

Angewandte Chemie, Jan-2019


A Peek into the Battery Technology Pipeline

With its deep expertise in materials research, materials design, and energy storage technologies, Berkeley Lab is working on better battery alternatives. Gerbrand Ceder, a battery researcher in the Materials Science Division, details four battery ec...

– Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


London air to be kept clean thanks to Warwick researchers

In London air pollution contributes to thousands of premature deaths a year, with many others suffering the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure.

– University of Warwick


Shrinking of Greenland’s glaciers began accelerating in 2000, research finds

Satellite data has given scientists clues about how, when and why Greenland’s glaciers are shrinking – and shows a sharp increase in glacial retreat beginning about 2000, according to new research presented this week.

– Ohio State University

10-Dec-2019


Reducing Wildfire Risks for Better Management and Resource Allocation

As wildfires become deadlier, larger and more expensive, there is strong interest in better risk governance. Managing future wildfire risk requires an interface between human decision processes and knowledge about climate trends related to fire, as w...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019

Embargo expired on 10-Dec-2019 at 17:00 ET


Communications Device Offers Huge Bandwidth Potential

Several countries are building futuristic communication systems using higher frequency electromagnetic waves to transfer more data at faster rates, but they have lacked network components to handle these higher bandwidths. Researcher J. Gary Eden pro...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Applied Physics Reviews

Embargo expired on 10-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


Insects’ Drag-Based Flight Mechanism Could Improve Tiny Flying Robots

Thrips don’t rely on lift in order to fly. Instead, the tiny insects rely on a drag-based flight mechanism, keeping themselves afloat in airflow velocities with a large ratio of force to wing size. In a study published in this week’s Journal of A...

– American Institute of Physics (AIP)

Applied Physics

Embargo expired on 10-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


How to induce magnetism in graphene

Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechani-cal, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applica-tions. Together with international partners, Empa researchers ha...

– Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Nature Nanotechnology


Could we cool the Earth with an ice-free Arctic?

The Arctic region is heating up faster than any other place on Earth, and as more and more sea ice is lost every year, we are already feeling the impacts. IIASA researchers explored strategies for cooling down the oceans in a world without this impor...

– International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

SN Applied Sciences


Research explores how grape pests sniff out berries

A new study, published Nov. 21 in the Journal of Chemical Ecology, investigates how these pests find their target amid a sea of other plants in the landscape.

– Cornell University

Chemical Ecology


Tiny Magnetic Particles Enable New Material to Bend, Twist, and Grab

A team of researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and The Ohio State University has developed a soft polymer material, called magnetic shape memory polymer, that uses magnetic fields to transform into a variety of shapes. The material co...

– Georgia Institute of Technology

National Science Foundation/No. DMR-1420451; AFOSR/No. FA9550-19-1-0151; DOE/No. DE-SC0001304; Advanced Materials

includes video


Last remaining glaciers in the Pacific will soon melt away

The last remaining tropical glaciers between the Himalayas and the Andes will disappear in the next decade – and possibly sooner – due to climate change, a new study has found. The glaciers in Papua, Indonesia, are “the canaries in the coal min...

– Ohio State University


Natural ecosystems protect against climate change

The identification of natural carbon sinks and understanding how they work is critical if humans are to mitigate global climate change. Tropical coastal wetlands are considered important but, so far, there is little data to show the benefits.

– University of Göttingen

Global Change Biology


Technologies and scientific advances needed to track methane levels in atmosphere

Understanding what influences the amount of methane in the atmosphere has been identified by the American Geophysical Union to be one of the foremost challenges in the earth sciences in the coming decades because of methane's hugely important role in...

– University of Bristol

Global Biogeochemical Cycles


Could dark carbon be hiding the true scale of ocean 'dead zones'?

Dead zones within the world's oceans - where there is almost no oxygen to sustain life - could be expanding far quicker than currently thought, a new study suggests.

– University of Plymouth

Global Biogeochemical Cycles


Tweaking the approach to save the desert tortoise

“Increase the size, increase the survival” is the premise behind head-starting tortoises, but new research reveals larger size alone is not enough to save the desert tortoise from predator attacks.

– University of Georgia

Wildlife Management


Sorghum study illuminates relationship between humans, crops and the environment in domestication

A new study illustrates the concept of a domestication triangle, in which human genetics interact with sorghum genetics and the environment to influence the traits farmers select in their crops. The concept gives a more complete systemic picture of d...

– Iowa State University

Nature Plants volume 5, pages1229–1236(2019)


Connecting agriculture, public gardens and science

Groups collaborate on future ventures

– American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)

Crop Science


Refueling Satellites in Space, With the Help of a Robot

Many technologies that are essential for daily life — from communications to GPS navigation to weather forecasting — rely on the thousands of satellites that are orbiting Earth. When those satellites run out of gas and stop working, there’s not...

– Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)


Rapid DNA Identifies Conception Boat Fire Victims

DHS sought a technology that can quickly analyze DNA to verify family relationships (kinship) and identify victims of mass casualty events and human trafficking.

– Homeland Security's Science And Technology Directorate


Why It Matters: Space Jam

Space is getting crowded. The biggest challenge is space junk—the debris that results when satellites break up or get shot down. If we aren’t careful, space junk, and space conflict, could cause a lot of problems down here on Earth.

– Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

Gabrielle Sierra, "Space Jam", Why It Matters, December 4, 2019.


A fragile crust protects from dust

From June 2016 to August 2018, Perry traversed the playa by bike, researching how it contributes to dust in the Salt Lake Valley’s air. In a report prepared for the Utah Department of Natural Resources and Utah Division of Facilities Construction a...

– University of Utah


Cosmic Ray Tool Repaired in Space

Astronauts are extending the life of the DOE's Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer aboard the International Space Station.

– Department of Energy, Office of Science

09-Dec-2019


Strategies to Lower Risk for Violent Crime and Gun Violence

With violent crimes and gun violence rising annually and the number of gun deaths in the U.S. surpassing all other nations, researchers at the annual meeting of The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) present a series of studies during its Study of Viole...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019

Embargo expired on 09-Dec-2019 at 10:30 ET


Natural Toxins in the Global Food Supply Continue to Threaten the Health of Underprivileged Communities

Naturally occurring chemicals in the global food supply are known to pose a burden on worldwide health. New studies have found that a certain foodborne toxin, in addition to its known health effects,, is also linked to vaccine resistance, and for t...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019

Embargo expired on 09-Dec-2019 at 15:00 ET


New England fishermen losing jobs due to climate

For decades the biggest threat to the industry has been overfishing, but it is no longer the only threat. According to new research at the University of Delaware, fluctuations in the climate have already cost some New England fishermen their jobs.

– University of Delaware

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Embargo expired on 09-Dec-2019 at 15:00 ET


Highlighting the importance and vulnerability of the world’s water towers

A new Nature study provides insight into the world's natural water towers, which are crucial to the welfare of 1.9 billion people.

– International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Nature

Embargo expired on 09-Dec-2019 at 11:00 ET


Climate change and the threat to global breadbaskets

Extreme climatic conditions could lead to an increased risk of unusually low agricultural harvests if more than one global breadbasket is affected by adverse climate conditions at the same time.

– International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Nature Climate Change


How Planets May Form After Dust Sticks Together

Scientists may have figured out how dust particles can stick together to form planets, according to a Rutgers co-authored study that may also help to improve industrial processes. In homes, adhesion on contact can cause fine particles to form dust bu...

– Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Nature Physics


Study: Favorable Environments for Large Hail Increasing Across U.S.

A group of atmospheric scientists have uncovered an environmental footprint that could help explain why the cost of hailstorm damage is rapidly increasing in the United States.

– University at Albany, State University of New York

Nature Climate and Atmospheric Science


New Function for Plant Enzyme Could Lead to Green Chemistry

Scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered a new function in a plant enzyme that could inspire the design of new chemical catalysts. The enzyme catalyzes, or initiates, one of the cornerstone chemical reactions needed to synthesize ...

– Brookhaven National Laboratory

Plant Physiology, Dec-2019


Inspired by the Brain

Researchers have developed a technology that can turn TowerJazz's commercial flash memory components into memristors—devices that contain both memory and computing power. Inspired by the operation of the human brain, the technology significantly ac...

– American Technion Society

Nature Electronics, Dec-2019


Scientists find further evidence for a population of dark matter deficient dwarf galaxies

Researchers from the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), Peking University and Tsinghua University have found a special population of dwarf galaxies that could mainly consist baryons within radii of up to ten...

– Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nature Astronomy


Acoustic focusing to amass microplastics in water

Microplastics are receiving a lot of attention lately due to its difficulty in removal from the environment.

– Shinshu University


Battery collaboration meeting discusses new pathways to recycle lithium-ion batteries

At a conference held by the ReCell Center, an advanced battery recycling collaboration based at Argonne, representatives from industry, government, and academia discussed innovative approaches for lithium-ion battery recycling.

– Argonne National Laboratory


Argonne’s debt to 2019 Nobel Prize for lithium-ion battery

A roar of approval rang out at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Argonne National Laboratory upon the announcement in October that John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino had won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On De...

– Argonne National Laboratory

includes video


Cornell certificate program develops understanding of beer selection

Cornell University's School of Hotel Administration has launched a Beer Essentials certificate program to help hospitality industry professionals develop the end-to-end understanding of beer production, tasting and selection necessary for establishin...

– Cornell University


Research at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source leads to new Ebola drug

Scientists using specialized beamlines at Argonne's Structural Biology Center (SBC), a facility for macromolecular crystallography at the Advanced Photon Source, derived insights that led to the discovery of a promising new drug for Ebola.

– Argonne National Laboratory

Science, Mar-2016

SciWire Announcement


Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow Awarded Prestigious Fleming Medal

Michelle Thomsen, a Los Alamos National Laboratory fellow and guest scientist, was awarded the John Adam Fleming Medal by the American Geophysical Union today at a ceremony in San Francisco, Calif.

– Los Alamos National Laboratory


Glaucoma Research Foundation to Honor Leaders in Glaucoma Innovation at 2020 Annual Gala in San Francisco

Ophthalmology industry innovators Vicente Anido, Jr., PhD and Thomas A. Mitro of Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc. will be honored at the Glaucoma 360 Annual Gala on February 6, 2020 in San Francisco.

– Glaucoma Research Foundation

Glaucoma 360 Annual Gala, February 6, 2020


Vietnamese Investors Back Novel Point-of-Care Technology for Rapid Detection of Pathogens

Hememics Biotechnologies Inc., ("Hememics" or the "Company") announced that AMVI Partners, a consortium of high net worth Vietnamese investors, has invested $2.5 million into Hememics. The company will use the funds to initiate clinical research for ...

– Hememics Biotechnologies Inc.


Danforth Center Launches Ag Tech NEXT Conference

The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center today announced AgTech NEXT, a bold new food and agtech innovation summit that will be held May 4 – 6, 2020 at the Danforth Center in St. Louis, MO.

– Donald Danforth Plant Science Center

AgTech NEXT Summit


Investors inject $45 million into health and biotech industry

A new $45 million Adelaide China Biotech Investment Fund will accelerate the development and commercialization of health and bio-technologies from South Australia for the global market.

– University of Adelaide


Society for Risk Analysis Announces 2019 Winners for Best Journal Papers and Best Research Posters

The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) is pleased to announce the winners for best papers in Risk Analysis: An International Journal and the best research posters for 2019. The editorial staff of Risk Analysis selected the 2019 Best Paper award winners....

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019


Society for Risk Analysis Announces Its New 2020 Council

During its Annual Meeting, the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) announced the addition of five new Council members and the rise of Seth Guikema, Ph.D., University of Michigan, as the new President of its 2020 Council. Guikema succeeds Katherine McComa...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019


Twelve Honored by Society for Risk Analysis

Today, the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) awarded six prestigious scholarly and service awards and named six new Fellows at its Annual Meeting in Arlington, Virginia. These awards recognize 12 individuals for their outstanding contributions to the s...

– Society for Risk Analysis (SRA)

Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec-2019


UNH Sails into the Next Generation of Ocean Mapping With NOAA Grant

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have been awarded a three-year grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in partnership with Saildrone, Inc. of Alameda, CA, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (...

– University of New Hampshire


Veho Institute launches, establishes center at Cornell Tech

Cornell Engineering has launched the Veho Institute for vehicle intelligence, formally partnering Cornell with Italian universities and luxury automakers as well as establishing a new academic center at Cornell Tech.

– Cornell University


Lily and Yuh-Nung Jan Named 20th Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize Recipients

The UNC School of Medicine has awarded the 20th Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize to Lily Jan, PhD, and Yuh-Nung Jan, PhD, both at UC San Francisco, for the “discovery and functional characterization of potassium channels.”

– University of North Carolina School of Medicine


Department of Energy to Provide $24 Million in EPSCoR Grants for Energy-Related Research

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a funding opportunity for up to $24 million for new grants under the Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE EPSCoR).

– Department of Energy, Office of Science


Mone Zaidi, MD, PhD, Named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Mone Zaidi, MD, PhD, Director of the Mount Sinai Bone Program, has been named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

– Mount Sinai Health System

Science, Nov-2019

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