Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants are frequently the preferred treatment option for a broad range of hematopoietic malignancies and other hematopoietic disorders.
International HSC donor registries allow patients to find human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors, but substantial racial and ethnic disparities exist that must be addressed.
Allogeneic transplant outcomes have improved dramatically due to the collective impact of numerous improvements in pretransplant conditioning and post-transplant support.
Histological, cytogenetic, and genetic data allow hematopoietic disorders to be classified and sometimes provide useful information about treatment options, but are often less informative than hoped.
A major challenge after an HSC transplant is to strike an appropriate balance for each hematopoietic malignancy patient between suppressing graft-versus-host disease while promoting the elimination of residual diseased cells by the graft-versus-disease activity of donor cells.