The successful transplantation of stem cells has the potential to transform regenerative medicine approaches and open promising avenues to repair, replace, and regenerate diseased, damaged, or aged tissues. However, pre-/post-transplantation issues of poor cell survival, retention, cell fate regulation, and insufficient integration with host tissues constitute significant challenges. The success of stem cell transplantation depends upon the coordinated sequence of stem cell renewal, specific lineage differentiation, assembly, and maintenance of long-term function. Advances in biomaterials can improve pre-/post-transplantation outcomes by integrating biophysiochemical cues and emulating tissue microenvironments. This review highlights leading biomaterials-based approaches for enhancing stem cell transplantation.