WCS 3-Sentence Science

Each year, WCS scientists author or co-author nearly 300 peer-reviewed studies and papers.  “WCS 3 Sentence Science” is a regular tip-sheet – in bite sized helpings – of some of this published work. 


1. A team of scientists and veterinarians gave a health evaluation of turtles living in the Bronx River, one of the most urbanized rivers in the U.S. and the only remaining freshwater river that flows through New York City. 
2. Full physical exams given to 18 free-ranging native common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) and nine nonnative invasive red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta) revealed bioaccumulation of various environmental contaminants – including PCBs and heavy metals, as well as viruses and bacteria. 
3. The study established a baseline health assessment to which future data can be compared, and expands the knowledge and patterns of health markers, environmental contaminants, and microorganisms of free-ranging turtles. 

Study and Journal:  "“Health assessment of free-ranging chelonians in an urban section of the Bronx River, New York, USA”"   from  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 
WCS Co-Author(s):  Valerie Titus , * ;  Robert Ossiboff, Tracie Seimon, Karen Ingerman, Paul Calle and John Sykes , *WCS Zoological Health Program

Journal Link: Journal of Wildlife Diseases