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17-Sep-2020 10:30 AM EDT
Study Discovers Multiple Unapproved Drugs in “Brain Boosting” Supplements
American Academy of Neurology (AAN)

Supplements that claim to improve mental focus and memory may contain unapproved pharmaceutical drugs and in potentially dangerous combinations and doses, according to a new study published in the September 23, 2020, online issue of Neurology® Clinical Practice, an official journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Researchers found five such drugs not approved in the United States in the supplements they examined. The supplements are sometimes called “nootropics,” “smart drugs” or “cognitive enhancers.”

Newswise: Statins Reduce COVID-19 Severity, Likely by Removing Cholesterol That Virus Uses to Infect
Released: 23-Sep-2020 3:45 PM EDT
Statins Reduce COVID-19 Severity, Likely by Removing Cholesterol That Virus Uses to Infect
University of California San Diego Health

Analyzing anonymized patient medical records, UC San Diego researchers discovered that cholesterol-lowering statins reduced risk of severe COVID-19 infection, while lab experiments uncovered a cellular mechanism that helps explain why.

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Released: 23-Sep-2020 3:35 PM EDT
Meditation for mind-control
Carnegie Mellon University

A BCI is an apparatus that allows an individual to control a machine or computer directly from their brain.

Newswise: Active learning accelerates redox-flow battery discovery
Released: 23-Sep-2020 2:35 PM EDT
Active learning accelerates redox-flow battery discovery
Argonne National Laboratory

In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, researchers are accelerating the hunt for the best possible battery components by employing artificial intelligence.

Newswise:Video Embedded wobbling-shadow-of-the-m87-black-hole
VIDEO
Released: 23-Sep-2020 2:15 PM EDT
Wobbling shadow of the M87 black hole
National Science Foundation (NSF)

In 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration delivered the first image of a black hole, revealing M87*--the supermassive object in the center of the M87 galaxy.

Newswise: Bristol scientists shine light on tiny crystals behind unexpected violent eruptions
Released: 23-Sep-2020 2:00 PM EDT
Bristol scientists shine light on tiny crystals behind unexpected violent eruptions
University of Bristol

In a new study of volcanic processes, Bristol scientists have demonstrated the role nanolites play in the creation of violent eruptions at otherwise ‘calm’ and predictable volcanoes. The study, published in Science Advances, describes how nano-sized crystals (nanolites), 10,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, can have a significant impact of the viscosity of erupting magma, resulting in previously unexplained and explosive eruptions.

Newswise: Antarctic Ice Loss Expected to Affect Future Climate Change
22-Sep-2020 10:45 AM EDT
Antarctic Ice Loss Expected to Affect Future Climate Change
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

In a new climate modeling study that looked at the impacts of accelerated ice melt from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) on future climate, a team of climate scientists reports that future ice-sheet melt is expected to have significant effects on global climate.

Newswise: Ultra-Low-Cost Hearing Aid Could Address Age-Related Hearing Loss Worldwide
21-Sep-2020 8:55 AM EDT
Ultra-Low-Cost Hearing Aid Could Address Age-Related Hearing Loss Worldwide
Georgia Institute of Technology

Using a device that could be built with a dollar’s worth of open-source parts and a 3D-printed case, researchers want to help the hundreds of millions of older people worldwide who can’t afford existing hearing aids to address their age-related hearing loss.

Newswise: Survey reveals popular misconceptions about child marriage
17-Sep-2020 12:55 PM EDT
Survey reveals popular misconceptions about child marriage
PLOS

Misconceptions about child marriage (marriage under 18) appear widespread among the American public, potentially hampering efforts to address the practice globally.

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Released: 23-Sep-2020 1:55 PM EDT
First evidence that air pollution particles and metals are reaching the placenta
Queen Mary University of London

Pollution particles, including metals, have been found in the placentas of fifteen women in London, according to research led by Queen Mary University of London.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 1:45 PM EDT
Mathematics: Modelling the timings of a COVID-19 second wave in Europe
Scientific Reports

How a second wave of COVID-19 infections may evolve across Europe over the next few months, using data on infection rates and travel within and between European countries, is modelled in a Scientific Reports paper.

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Released: 23-Sep-2020 1:30 PM EDT
Amyloid deposits not associated with depression in the elderly
Elsevier

Depression in elderly people can include symptoms such as memory loss, making it hard to distinguish from the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 1:20 PM EDT
Study: Death counts fail to capture full mortality effects of COVID-19
University of South Florida

More than 200,000 people in the U.S. have died from COVID-19.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 1:05 PM EDT
UK lockdown and air pollution: Nitrogen dioxide halved but sulphur dioxide doubled
University of Liverpool

A University of Liverpool study of air pollution in the UK during the first 100 days of lockdown has revealed that whilst nitrogen oxide levels were cut by half, levels of sulphur dioxide increased by over 100%.

Newswise: Automatic database creation for materials discovery: Innovation from frustration
Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:40 PM EDT
Automatic database creation for materials discovery: Innovation from frustration
Argonne National Laboratory

A collaboration between the University of Cambridge and Argonne has developed a unique method of generating automatic databases to support specific fields of science using AI and high-performance computing.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:30 PM EDT
New genes for human deafness found in Israeli families
American Friends of Tel Aviv University

Until now, seven genes were known to be involved in hearing loss in Israel's Jewish population. A new study led by Zippora Brownstein, PhD, and Prof. Karen Avraham from the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University has found that 32 genes are responsible for inherited hearing loss in Israeli Jewish families.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:15 PM EDT
Study Reveals Benefits from VA Payment Reforms for Dialysis
American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

• Over the last decade, the Department of Veterans Affairs implemented payment changes to reduce spending on community dialysis treatments and to improve access to care for Veterans with kidney failure. • The changes led to reduced costs for dialysis sessions and less variation in payments for dialysis. • The changes led to improved access to dialysis care without change in the quality of that care.

Newswise: Scientists develop forecasting technique that could help advance quest for fusion energy
Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:10 PM EDT
Scientists develop forecasting technique that could help advance quest for fusion energy
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

An international group of researchers has developed a technique that forecasts how tokamaks might respond to unwanted magnetic errors. These forecasts could help engineers design fusion facilities that create a virtually inexhaustible supply of safe and clean fusion energy to generate electricity.

Newswise: pregnantmarijuana.jpg
Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:05 PM EDT
Prenatal cannabis exposure associated with adverse outcomes during middle childhood
Washington University in St. Louis

Research from the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis shows prenatal cannabis exposure may impact child behavior later in life.

Newswise: Putting spin in semiconductor materials
Released: 23-Sep-2020 12:00 PM EDT
Putting spin in semiconductor materials
South Dakota State University

New semiconductor materials that use an electron’s spin to store information can make computers and electronic devices faster, more energy efficient and less expensive.

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Released: 23-Sep-2020 11:55 AM EDT
Study finds gut microbiome plays important role in sleep regulation
University of Missouri, Columbia

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep condition affecting more than one billion people worldwide.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 11:25 AM EDT
Tiny worlds reveal fundamental drivers of abundance, diversity
Santa Fe Institute

Ecology is traditionally a data-poor discipline, but tiny microbial worlds offer the quantity of data needed to solve universal questions about abundance and diversity. New research in Nature Communications reveals the fundamental relationship between the environment and the species present in a microbial community and can be used as a starting point for investigating bigger systems.

Newswise: HIV Drugs Could Prevent Diabetes, Study Suggests
Released: 23-Sep-2020 10:30 AM EDT
HIV Drugs Could Prevent Diabetes, Study Suggests
University of Virginia Health System

Patients taking drugs called NRTIs to treat HIV and hepatitis B had a 33% lower risk of developing diabetes.

Newswise: Sanders-Brown Research Discovers New Pathway in TDP-43 Related Dementias
Released: 23-Sep-2020 10:30 AM EDT
Sanders-Brown Research Discovers New Pathway in TDP-43 Related Dementias
University of Kentucky

Recent work published by researchers at the University of Kentucky’s Sanders-Brown Center on Aging (SBCoA) highlights what the lead investigator calls the “cornerstone” of her lab.

21-Sep-2020 8:40 AM EDT
One size does not fit all for young-adult binge-drinkers: Research reveals high-risk clusters that may inform future trajectories and treatment interventions
Research Society on Alcoholism

Young adults who binge drink can be categorized within distinct subgroups based on substance use and mental health symptoms, according to research reported in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Binge drinking in young people is very common and linked to adverse outcomes including academic underachievement, risky behaviors, alcohol poisoning, other substance use, and harm to the brain. While some ‘age out’ of binge-drinking in their mid-to-late 20s, others continue with harmful patterns of alcohol use. Previous research has shown that other substance use and mental health indicators vary widely among binge-drinking youth, and could help explain the differences in trajectories. It is also important to understand young people’s motivation for drinking alcohol to inform why some people naturally reduce and others persist or worsen. In the new study, researchers sought to identify distinct patterns of drinking, drug use, and mental health symptoms among young binge drinkers, an

Released: 23-Sep-2020 9:40 AM EDT
Neurotic College Students Could Benefit From Health Education
Binghamton University, State University of New York

College students are under a lot of stress, even more so lately due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on certain personality types, especially neurotic personalities, college health courses could help students develop a more positive stress mindset, according to research from faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Released: 23-Sep-2020 9:40 AM EDT
Cleveland Clinic Study Identifies Weight-Loss Threshold for Cardiovascular and Survival Benefits in Patients with Obesity and Diabetes
Cleveland Clinic

A Cleveland Clinic study shows that 5 to 10 percent of surgically induced weight loss is associated with improved life expectancy and cardiovascular health. In comparison, about 20 percent weight loss is necessary to observe similar benefits with a non-surgical treatment. The findings also show that metabolic surgery may contribute health benefits that are independent of weight loss. The study is published in the October issue of Annals of Surgery.

Newswise: Digital Detectives Vie with Tech-Savvy Criminals in Crime Fiction War of Good vs. Evil
Released: 23-Sep-2020 9:00 AM EDT
Digital Detectives Vie with Tech-Savvy Criminals in Crime Fiction War of Good vs. Evil
Baylor University

“Whodunnit” may be the big question in crime fiction, but “how they done it” determines whether they will get away with it. These days in detective novels, the war of good and evil increasingly involves technological savvy, says a Baylor University crime fiction researcher.

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Embargo will expire: 29-Sep-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 23-Sep-2020 9:00 AM EDT

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Released: 23-Sep-2020 9:00 AM EDT
Women Orthopaedic Surgeons Report High Rates of Sexual Harassment
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott

More than two-thirds of women orthopaedic surgeons report experiencing sexual harassment during their residency training, according to a survey study in Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® (CORR®), a publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Newswise:Video Embedded gulf-of-mexico-mission-ocean-blue-holes-are-not-created-equal
VIDEO
Released: 23-Sep-2020 8:30 AM EDT
Gulf of Mexico Mission: ‘Ocean Blue Holes Are Not Created Equal’
Florida Atlantic University

Scientists recently got a unique glimpse into the “Green Banana” Blue Hole thanks to gutsy divers and a 500-pound autonomous, benthic lander. Together with hand-picked, elite scuba divers, the research team is unraveling the structure and behavior of these marine environments by examining geochemistry, hydrodynamics, and biology. Findings from this exploration also may have important implications for phytoplankton in the Gulf of Mexico, including blooms of the Florida Red-tide species Karenia brevis.

Newswise: Glycans in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein play active role in infection
18-Sep-2020 10:00 AM EDT
Glycans in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein play active role in infection
American Chemical Society (ACS)

As researchers try to develop therapies/vaccines to combat SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus spike protein is a major focus since it can bind to cells. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have uncovered an active role for glycans in this process, suggesting targets for vaccines and therapies.

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Embargo will expire: 25-Sep-2020 2:00 PM EDT Released to reporters: 23-Sep-2020 7:00 AM EDT

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21-Sep-2020 1:25 PM EDT
Study finds lung transplant patients not given antifungal preventive drugs have higher risk of death
Mayo Clinic

Antifungal preventive medications reduce mortality risk by half in the first year following lung transplantation, according to Mayo Clinic research involving 667 patients who received lung transplants from 2005 to 2018.

Released: 22-Sep-2020 5:45 PM EDT
Network Resilience is Key to Surviving Compound Hazard Events, Scientists Say
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

As extreme weather and other events increase in frequency and intensity, cybercriminals ramp up attacks on technologies that tie together urban infrastructure systems, networks critical to the flow of data, people, goods, and services must be made more resilient to failure, according to a team of scientists.

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Embargo will expire: 6-Oct-2020 8:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 22-Sep-2020 5:30 PM EDT

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Released: 22-Sep-2020 5:05 PM EDT
New vaccine strategy harnesses ‘foot soldier’ T-cells to provide protection against influenza
University of Wisconsin-Madison

As Americans begin pulling up their sleeves for an annual flu vaccine, researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have provided new insights into an alternative vaccine approach that provides broader protection against seasonal influenza.

Released: 22-Sep-2020 5:05 PM EDT
Shared protein fingerprint could simplify treatment of common inherited heart disease
University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Wisconsin–Madison scientists discovered that many different genetic mutations result in surprisingly similar changes to heart muscle proteins in patients with the most severe manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

17-Sep-2020 8:05 AM EDT
Kidney Damage From COVID-19 Linked to Higher Risk of In-Hospital Death
American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

In an analysis of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, kidney damage associated with the infectious disease was linked with a higher risk of dying during hospitalization.

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Released: 22-Sep-2020 4:55 PM EDT
40% of O'ahu, Hawai'i beaches could be lost by mid-century
University of Hawaii at Manoa

The reactive and piecemeal approach historically used to manage beaches in Hawai'i has failed to protect them.

Released: 22-Sep-2020 4:25 PM EDT
Parkinson's Disease Is Not One, but Two Diseases
Aarhus University

Although the name may suggest otherwise, Parkinson's disease is not one but two diseases, starting either in the brain or in the intestines. Which explains why patients with Parkinson's describe widely differing symptoms, and points towards personalised medicine as the way forward for people with Parkinson's disease.

Released: 22-Sep-2020 4:20 PM EDT
Muslims, atheists more likely to face religious discrimination in US
University of Washington

A new study led by the University of Washington found that Muslims and atheists in the United States are more likely than those of Christian faiths to experience religious discrimination. Researchers focused on public schools and tested how principals responded to an individual’s expression of religious belief.

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Released: 22-Sep-2020 4:10 PM EDT
Evolution of radio-resistance is more complicated than previously thought
Frontiers

The toughest organisms on Earth, called extremophiles, can survive extreme conditions like extreme dryness (desiccation), extreme cold, space vacuum, acid, or even high-level radiation.

Newswise: Common HIV drugs increase a type of immunity in the gut
Released: 22-Sep-2020 4:05 PM EDT
Common HIV drugs increase a type of immunity in the gut
University of Washington School of Medicine and UW Medicine

In this research, the investigators studied the effect of TDF/FTC in patients who were using the drug to prevent HIV, and in the absence of active HIV infection. The researchers observed patients over the past five years and also included data from two earlier studies.


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