Researchers created a system that uses CRISPR in a new way. Rather than acting on the genome to create permanent change, their system briefly suppresses genes specific to adenovirus antibody production, just long enough for the virus to deliver its gene therapy cargo unimpeded.
A new study published in the journal New Phytologist from a research team led by environmental scientist Bala Chaudhary at DePaul University uncovered previously undiscovered patterns in the dispersal of mycorrhizal fungi that could help ecologists understand how these beneficial fungi travel.
A team at ClearCam, Inc., with funding from the NIBIB and ties to the University of Texas at Austin, designed a device for wiping a laparoscope lens clean, much the same way that a wiper blade clears a fogged up window.
Bioengineers have created a blood-drawing robot that performed as well or better than technicians. The device could increase blood draw success from difficult- to-find veins and allow healthcare workers more time to treat patients.
Experts believe that tuberculosis, or TB, has been a scourge for humans for some 15,000 years, with the first medical documentation of the disease coming out of India around 1000 B.C.E. Today, the World Health Organization reports that TB is still the leading cause of death worldwide from a single infectious agent, responsible for some 1.5 million fatalities annually. Primary treatment for TB for the past 50 years has remained unchanged and still requires patients to take multiple drugs daily for at least six months. Successful treatment with these anti-TB drugs — taken orally or injected into the bloodstream — depends on the medications “finding their way” into pockets of TB bacteria buried deep within the lungs.
Wayne State University received a two-year, $725,000 R01 grant from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health for the development of a novel point-of-care 3D neonatal photoacoustic tomography (3D-nPAT) to improve the detection and measurement of hypoxic-ischemic in neonates without the need for sedation, radiation or radionuclides.
If the saying that two heads are better than one is true, then joining two fields of science may be better than one to spur more advances in medicine. With a $6.7 million, five-year grant from the National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers will bring together immunologists, oncologists and biomedical engineers in an effort to build new tools to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases.
What factors affect how human touch perceives softness, like the feel of pressing your fingertip against a marshmallow, a piece of clay or a rubber ball? By exploring this question in detail, UC San Diego researchers discovered clever tricks to design materials that replicate different levels of perceived softness.
As many as a billion people could be newly exposed to disease-carrying mosquitoes by the end of the century because of global warming, says a new study that examines temperature changes on a monthly basis across the world.
Experimenting with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have successfully used positron emission tomography (PET) scans to calculate in real time how much of an immunotherapy drug reaches a tumor and what parts of a cancer remain unaffected.
Using strong and targeted but noninvasive magnets at specific sites in the brains of people with and without mild learning and memory problems, Johns Hopkins researchers report they were able to detect differences in the concentrations of brain chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. The strength of these magnetic fields allows the researchers to measure tiny amounts and compare multiple brain metabolite levels at the same time. These studies may ultimately help to reveal what initiates memory decline and may, perhaps, even predict dementia risk.
The researchers believe that measuring such data over time will allow them to more accurately detect and describe changes in metabolism in the brain as a person progresses from healthy to mild cognitive impairment and to dementia.
A new Johns Hopkins study offers promise towards someday being able to non-invasively examine changes in cancerous tumors to determine whether they’ll respond to radiation treatment, before treatment even begins.
Specialized lung cells appear in the developing fetus much earlier than scientists previously thought. Investigating the fetal signaling pathways active in the biological events by which alveoli form may offer future opportunities to treat lung damage caused by prematurity and other lung injuries.
NIBIB-funded researchers have developed a 3D-printed scaffold coated in aggrecan, a native cartilage component, to improve the regeneration of cartilage tissue in joints. The scaffold was combined with a common microfracture procedure and tested in rabbits. The University of Maryland researchers found the combination of the implant and microfracture procedure to be ten times more effective than microfracture alone.
Poor sleep is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, and now researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis think they know why. They found that older people who have less slow-wave sleep – the deep sleep you need to consolidate memories and wake up feeling refreshed – have higher levels of the brain protein tau. Elevated tau is a sign of Alzheimer’s disease and has been linked to brain damage and cognitive decline.
NIBIB-funded researchers have created a novel, low-cost biosensor to detect HER-2, a breast cancer biomarker in the blood, allowing for a far less invasive diagnostic test than the current practice, a needle biopsy. Scientists at the Universities of Hartford and Connecticut and funded in part by NIBIB, combined microfluidic technology with diagnostics, including electrochemical sensors and biomarkers, into a powerful package that can give results in about 15 minutes.
Although relatively rare in the United States, and accounting for fewer than 5 percent of tuberculosis cases worldwide, TB of the brain—or tuberculosis meningitis (TBM)—is often deadly, always hard to treat, and a particular threat to young children.
Researchers generated stable lines of spinal cord neural stem cells in culture. Transplanted into a rat model of spinal cord injury, the cells enabled robust regeneration of functional neurons along the length of the spine.
Up to 50% of women skip potentially life-saving mammograms often because they can cause extreme discomfort. Now researchers have developed a painless, light-based, non-radioactive, 15-second procedure that could revolutionize breast cancer screening and save lives.
The 2018 report is out: two wolves, almost 1,500 moose and an ecosystem in transition. In its 60th year, the research conducted at Isle Royale National Park is the longest running predator-prey study of its kind.
Bioengineers have developed micro-technologies that capture extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by brain tumors. The vesicles carry samples of the mutated genetic material and proteins causing malignancy that researchers can analyze to optimize precision cancer treatment.
Chronic bladder pain affects millions with abdominal discomfort that increases as their bladder fills, causing excessive urinary urgency and frequency. Neuroscientists used optogenetics in experiments with mice to switch on and off the neurons that signal bladder pain.
Researchers have developed a stretchable, flexible patch that could make it easier to perform ultrasound imaging on odd-shaped structures, such as engine parts, turbines, reactor pipe elbows and railroad tracks—objects that are difficult to examine using conventional ultrasound equipment. The ultrasound patch is a versatile and more convenient tool to inspect machine and building parts for defects and damage deep below the surface.
Miniaturized sensors when mounted directly on a tooth and communicating wirelessly with a mobile device, can transmit information on sugars, alcohol and salt. Researchers note that future adaptations of these sensors could enable the detection and recording of a wide range of nutrients, chemicals and physiological states.
A team led by engineers at Tufts University has opened a window into the cell by developing an optical tool that can read metabolism at subcellular resolution. The researchers were able to use the method to identify specific metabolic signatures that could arise in diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
To treat cardiovascular disease, surgery can remove blockages in large vessels in the heart or legs but is not possible in small vessels. To address this problem, researchers designed 3D-printed patches seeded with vessel-inducing endothelial cells. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, the researchers identified specific patch patterns that induced growth of organized, tissue-saving blood vessels, demonstrating the potential for the novel technology to address this significant public health problem.
NIH-supported researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital are studying an alternative to current contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging. In a recent study, they showed that the experimental alternative, which is a manganese-based compound, performs as well as approved contrast agents. Their study appeared online Nov. 15, 2017, in Radiology.
Using an approach that combines ultrasound imaging and genetic engineering of bacterial microbes, a team from California Institute of Technology (Caltech), with funding from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), has created a powerful new system to track bacteria dispatched to deliver therapies deep inside the body.
Engineers at the UC San Diego Center for Wearable Sensors have developed a smartphone case and app that could make it easier for patients to record and track their blood glucose readings, whether they’re at home or on the go.
NIBIB-funded scientists have developed a new technique for 3D-printing patient-specific organ models – here the prostate gland -- using polymers that accurately model the prostate’s dimensions and physical properties, while also providing quantitative tactile feedback, or response to pressure, incisions, and suturing.
Researchers combined the immune response created by injection of potato virus nanoparticles with doxorubicin to halt melanoma progression in a mouse model. It is the first demonstration of an anti-tumor response using potato virus nanoparticle vaccination—a novel treatment further enhanced with doxorubicin chemotherapy.
Investigator at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles is awarded $1.7 million by the NIH to study the impact of prematurity on brain development. The goal of the study is to develop biomarkers for early detection of risk for cognitive problems and behavioral disorders in premature infants.
Researchers have known for decades that fevers in the first trimester of pregnancy increase risk for some heart defects and facial deformities such as cleft lip or palate. Exactly how this happens is unclear.
Duke researchers now have evidence indicating that the fever itself, not its root source, is what interferes with the development of the heart and jaw during the first three to eight weeks of pregnancy.
To determine why more aerobically fit individuals have better memories, scientists used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), which measures the elasticity of organs, and found that fit individuals had a firmer, more elastic hippocampus—a region of the brain associated with memory.
Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.Now, NIBIB-funded researchers have developed a system to capture and identify a scarce blood peptide called P1 that can predict increased risk of preterm birth, offering the opportunity to delay birth or increase fetus viability to save lives and reduce lifelong disabilities.
A new technology generates cellular images detailed enough to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue. Researchers are working on speeding up the technology so it can be used during surgery, allowing surgeons to know if they have removed all the cancer while they still have time to take out more.
A research team has engineered a small peptide that binds to a protein found in high-risk prostate cancers and can be imaged using MRI. The system identified aggressive tumors in mouse models of prostate cancer, and is a promising step for reliable early detection and treatment of high-risk, life-threatening prostate cancer.
A warming climate could affect the stability of alpine grasslands in Asia’s Tibetan Plateau, threatening the ability of farmers and herders to maintain the animals that are key to their existence, and potentially upsetting the ecology of an area in which important regional river systems originate.
Researchers have developed a non-invasive imaging technique that accurately detects skin cancer without surgical biopsy. Multiphoton microscopy of mitochondria accurately identified melanomas and basal cell carcinomas by detecting abnormal clusters of mitochondria in both types of skin cancer.
Living systems dynamics about as predictable as a chemical reaction: Bacteria that stab and poison for defense and conquest can be charted using math equations that apply to phase separation of metals.