In a study published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Nicole Sparks, PhD, corresponding author and assistant professor of environmental and occupational health at the UC Irvine Program in Public Health, highlights recent discoveries describing key hormone pathways involved in bone formation and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter these pathways. 

Rapid cell division and bone differentiation occur during these early developmental periods, which is also when the human body is most susceptible to environmental factors that can have an adverse influence on human bone development.

Considerable evidence was found that tobacco smoke, air pollution, flame retardants, pesticides, chemicals used in industrial processes, and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (forever chemicals), can cause serious damage to bone development and remodeling.

Dr. Sparks is available for interviews to discuss why this information is important for communities to be aware of and how it can be used for researchers to harness into better diagnostic tools.