The recent revolution in tissue-resident macrophage biology has resulted largely from murine studies performed in the C57BL/6 strain. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of immune cells in the pleural cavity using both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Unlike C57BL/6 mice, naive tissue-resident Large Cavity Macrophages (LCM) of BALB/c mice failed to fully implement the tissue residency program. Following infection with a pleural-dwelling nematode these pre-existing differences were accentuated with LCM expansion occurring in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. While infection drove monocyte recruitment in both strains, only in C57BL/6 mice were monocytes able to efficiently integrate into the resident pool. Monocyte to macrophage conversion required both T cells and IL-4Rα signalling. Host genetics are therefore a key influence on tissue resident macrophage biology, and during nematode infection Th2 cells control the differentiation pathway of tissue resident macrophages.

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