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Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) have gained important new insight into how the performance of a promising semiconducting thin film can be optimized at the nanoscale for renewable energy technologies such as solar fuels.
Astronomers used Hubble during a total lunar eclipse to detect ozone in our planet’s atmosphere by looking at Earthlight reflected off the Moon in ultraviolet wavelengths. This method serves as a proxy for how astronomers will observe Earth-like exoplanets in search of life.
Legal marijuana is one of America’s fastest-growing industries, yet little scientific research exists on the unique workplace and health risks faced by cannabis workers. A special issue of the journal Annals of Work Exposures and Health explores worker safety in cannabis industry.
Aggressive behavior often, but not always, occurs alongside alcohol and drug misuse. Indeed, alcohol and drugs contribute to at least 40% of violent acts. However, despite the importance of substance misuse to understanding aggression, the relationships between alcohol-related, drug-related, and non-substance-related aggression are unclear. In particular, it is not known if these are three different facets of an individual’s overall aggressive tendency, or if they are three distinct and separate entities. A new analysis reported in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research has probed this question using statistical modeling.
Recovering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) can sometimes involve drinking reductions that do not come close to abstinence, according to recent research — challenging the dogma that recovery from AUD requires abstinence or infrequent drinking. In a new study, one in five participants achieved stable recovery while occasionally drinking heavily. These participants reported success in various measures of life satisfaction, functioning, and health several years after treatment for AUD, according to the study in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Their experience highlights the value of any drinking reduction. This study expands a body of work that is calling into question the longstanding emphasis — in research and recovery programs, including Alcoholics Anonymous — on drinking practices as a primary measure of success. A similar shift is taking place around other psychiatric disorders, with recovery increasingly measured by improved health and functioning over the absence of
George Washington University researchers found five biomarkers associated with higher odds of clinical deterioration and death in COVID-19 patients. Published in Future Medicine, these findings will help physicians better predict outcomes for COVID-19 patients in the U.S.
Penn Medicine researchers found that when an “Enhanced Recovery After Surgery” protocol was employed—which optimizes patients’ surgical care before, during, and after surgery—the majority of patients did not need opioids for pain management at one, three, and six months after elective spinal and peripheral nerve surgery.
For meeting a set of rigorous best practices for maternity care, University of Virginia Medical Center, UVA Women’s Services and UVA Children’s have been named to Newsweek’s Best Maternity Hospitals 2020 list.
A fast-acting antidote to mitigate the effects of organophosphate poisoning requires a reactivator that can effectively and efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, bind loosely to the enzyme, chemically snatch the poison and then leave quickly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is using neutron diffraction data towards improving a novel reactivator design.
A team of researchers have developed an algorithm through machine learning that helps predict sites of DNA methylation – a process that can change the activity of DNA without changing its overall structure – and could identify disease-causing mechanisms that would otherwise be missed by conventional screening methods.
Four FAU researchers have received the coveted NSF Early Career (CAREER) award for research to develop a low-cost, disposable point-of-care platform to detect current and emerging infectious diseases; for a cognitive screening tool for the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease using wearables and a smartphone; for mathematical tools and new ways of coding to enhance cybersecurity; and to better understand how marine animals tune, or dynamically adjust their movements using their skin and skeletons.
Researchers from Tufts have discovered neural mechanisms in mice specific to females that switch estrogen from playing a protective role in glucose metabolism to a disruptive role. The discovery could provide clues to the increased risk of insulin resistance and diabetes among post-menopausal women.
Hackensack Meridian Southern Ocean Medical Center Foundation has elected new officers to its board of trustees. Deborah Mathis has been elected as chair, Skye Gibson as vice chair, Sean Kauffman as treasurer and Joan Hart has been re-elected as secretary, with each serving a two-year term. Additionally, Christopher Fritz and Matthew Matey have joined the board of trustees.
Hackensack Meridian Jersey Shore University Medical Center Foundation is pleased to announce the addition of David M. Epstein, Esq., Harpreet Pall, M.D., MBA, CPE, Sandra Keary, Jeremy Grunin, Rick Loshiavo, Alexander Taylor and Gary Tolchin to the Jersey Shore University Medical Center Foundation Board of Trustees.
When a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available, 66 percent of adults are likely to get vaccinated, and have their children vaccinated as well, according to a new nationwide survey led by researchers from Rutgers University–New Brunswick, Northeastern, Harvard, and Northwestern universities.
Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute has been awarded a $4.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to identify new therapies for mental health disorders. The research will be headed by Layton Smith, Ph.D., and Michael Jackson, Ph.D., of the Institute’s Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics. The funding supports the discovery of new classes of drugs that target “orphan” receptors to treat psychological conditions such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and substance abuse.
While pediatricians routinely screen infants and toddlers for vision problems, parents should also be aware of common eye conditions. With knowledge and action, they can help set up their children for healthy vision — for the classroom and beyond.
An international team of researchers including the University of Adelaide, has found plant hormones known as strigolactones suppress the transportation of auxin, the main plant hormone involved in vein formation, so that vein formation occurs slower and with greater focus.
Scientists from Stanley Manne Children’s Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago discovered that a set of genes with decreased expression in individuals with Down syndrome may lead to clinical abnormalities in this population, such as poor muscle development and heart valve problems. Impairment in these same genes may also protect people with Down syndrome from developing solid tumors. Their findings were published in Scientific Reports.
New research by neuroscientists at the University of Pittsburgh and UC San Francisco (UCSF) revealed that a simple, earbud-like device developed at UCSF that imperceptibly stimulates a key nerve leading to the brain could significantly improve the wearer’s ability to learn sounds of a new language.
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health team leading California state study of air pollution and COVID-19. A research team led by UCLA Fielding School of Public Health faculty has been awarded a contract to study connections between air pollution and the COVID-19 pandemic, officials said.
The overwhelming ‘Whiteness’ of artificial intelligence – from stock images and cinematic robots to the dialects of virtual assistants – removes people of colour from the way humanity thinks about its technology-enhanced future, according to Cambridge researchers.
Attention to climate change has significantly declined in recent months, as the pandemic has monopolized news coverage. That's concerning, say study authors who found that simply directing one's attention to an environmental risk—even briefly and involuntarily—makes people more concerned about it and willing to take action.
New research from a University at Buffalo sociologist is providing valuable insight into better understanding the association between criminal behaviors and problem gambling.
“We’re finding that it’s not so much that problem gambling causes crime, but rather that the same background characteristics that contribute to predicting the likelihood of someone being a problem gambler also predict that they’ll engage in crime,” says Christopher Dennison, an assistant professor of sociology at UB.
Usher and Ng, journalism professors at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, identified nine clusters of journalists or “communities of practice” in their study, published online by the journal Social Media and Society.
Taking vitamin D and calcium twice a day may reduce your chances of getting vertigo again, according to a study published in the August 5, 2020, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
A new study found solitary activities like fishing, hunting or exploring outside are key to building strong bonds between children and nature. Activities like these encourage children to both enjoy being outside and to feel comfortable there.
DETROIT – Kathleen Yaremchuk, M.D., chair of the Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery at Henry Ford Health System, was announced as the 2020 Helen F. Krause, MD Trailblazer Award recipient by Women In Otolaryngology (WIO).The announcement was published in the August issue of the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery magazine.
When COVID-19 cases began rising in Nashville, masking became a regular part of life across Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital as one of several public health safety measures to protect employees and patients from potential COVID-19 exposure.
Children’s Hospital decided to get creative to ensure that the 1,700 children and families who visit the hospital and clinics each day can see that the same friendly faces they’ve always known still exist behind the masks.
Astronomers using several telescopes at NOIRLab, including the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, have obtained critical data on a particular type of exploding star that produces copious amounts of calcium. The calcium produced in this unique type of supernova explosion is the same calcium found in our bones and teeth and these events account for up to half of the calcium found in the Universe.
American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) President Joseph A. Bosco III, MD, FAAOS, issued the following statement in response to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ (CMS) newly released Calendar Year (CY) 2021 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule rule, which proposes to reduce all orthopaedic surgical services by approximately 5%.