Newswise — (Boston)--Women Veterans with more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or moral injury (guilt, shame or demoralization in response to participating in or witnessing events that violate one's sense of right and wrong), are at greater risk for negative pregnancy outcomes and postpartum depression in the three years following discharge from military service.

The number of women in the military and associated veteran population continues to grow with the largest increases observed among women of child-bearing age.

More than 9,500 Veterans were enrolled in a study approximately three months following their discharge from the service. Every six months they completed surveys which included questions about current pregnancies and outcomes. A total of 318 women Veterans experienced a pregnancy in the three years following separation from military service.

The researchers found one in two women veterans (50 percent) who became pregnant during the study period experienced a negative pregnancy outcome. In addition, the proportion of women who reported experiencing other adverse outcomes were as follows: 

  • Pregnancy Outcome Percentage
  • Postpartum depression or anxiety 30%
  • Miscarriage 25%
  • Obstetrical medical condition (such as preeclampsia or gestational diabetes) 22%
  • Emergency C-section 9%
  • Baby to NICU 8%
  • Preterm birth 6%
  • Stillbirth 2%
  • Ectopic or tubal pregnancy 2% 

According to the researchers, the finding that PTSD and moral injury increase risk for these outcomes suggests that screening for these conditions is important. "Although depression screening has become more common in obstetric settings due to recommendations made by the U.S. Preventative Service Task Force, it is unlikely that screening for PTSD and moral injury are universally being conducted in these settings," explained leas author Yael I. Nillni, PhD, Clinical Research Psychologist in the National Center for PTSD, Women's Health Sciences Division at VA Boston Healthcare System and assistant professor of psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine.

While screening for PTSD is common in VA medical centers, screening for PTSD in OB/GYN clinics in the community is not a widespread or common practice. "Given that many women veterans currently receive obstetric care outside of the VA, increased awareness of the impact of PTSD and moral injury on perinatal outcomes is imperative to improve screening during this sensitive time and connect at-risk veterans to services."


These findings appear online in the Journal of Traumatic Stress.

This research was managed by the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. (HJF); and collaboratively sponsored by the Bob Woodruff Foundation, Health Net Federal Services, The Heinz Endowments, HJF, Lockheed Martin Corporation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Northrop Grumman, Philip and Marge Odeen, Prudential, Robert R. McCormick Foundation, Rumsfeld Foundation, Schultz Family Foundation, Walmart Foundation, Wounded Warrior Project, Inc., and the Veterans Health Administration Health Services Research and Development Service.

Journal Link: Journal of Traumatic Stress