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  • Georgia Tech associate professor Kim Cobb holds slabs of fossil coral taken from cores drilled in the Line Islands in the mid-Pacific Ocean. Powder from the slabs is examined in the mass spectrometer, which measures the ratio of oxygen isotopes to assess the strength of ENSO during the time the corals were growing.
    Georgia Tech Photo: Gary Meek
    Georgia Tech associate professor Kim Cobb holds slabs of fossil coral taken from cores drilled in the Line Islands in the mid-Pacific Ocean. Powder from the slabs is examined in the mass spectrometer, which measures the ratio of oxygen isotopes to assess the strength of ENSO during the time the corals were growing.
  • Fossil coral cores taken from the Line Islands provide information about the strength of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for periods of time as much as 7,000 years ago. The paper rules track the direction of coral growth.
    Georgia Tech Photo: Gary Meek
    Fossil coral cores taken from the Line Islands provide information about the strength of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for periods of time as much as 7,000 years ago. The paper rules track the direction of coral growth.
  • Georgia Tech researchers use a hydraulic drill to remove cores from a large fossil coral “rock” on a beach on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, the cores provide information about the temperature and rainfall changes associated with El Nino activity over long periods of time.
    Photo: Roland Klein, Norwegian Cruise Lines
    Georgia Tech researchers use a hydraulic drill to remove cores from a large fossil coral “rock” on a beach on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, the cores provide information about the temperature and rainfall changes associated with El Nino activity over long periods of time.
  • Associate professor Kim Cobb and graduate student Hussein Sayani, both from Georgia Tech, prepare samples of powder taken from fossil coral cores. The powder is examined in the mass spectrometer, which measures the ratio of oxygen isotopes to assess the strength of ENSO during the time the corals were growing.
    Georgia Tech Photo: Gary Meek
    Associate professor Kim Cobb and graduate student Hussein Sayani, both from Georgia Tech, prepare samples of powder taken from fossil coral cores. The powder is examined in the mass spectrometer, which measures the ratio of oxygen isotopes to assess the strength of ENSO during the time the corals were growing.
  • Georgia Tech researchers use a hydraulic drill to remove cores from a large fossil coral “rock” on a beach on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, the cores provide information about the temperature and rainfall changes associated with past El Nino activity.
    Georgia Tech Photo: Jordan Watson
    Georgia Tech researchers use a hydraulic drill to remove cores from a large fossil coral “rock” on a beach on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, the cores provide information about the temperature and rainfall changes associated with past El Nino activity.
  • Georgia Tech researchers work underwater to remove cores from living coral colonies growing on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, these “modern” cores provide records of the most recent period of climate changes for comparison to the fossil coral climate reconstructions.
    Photo: Roland Klein, Norwegian Cruise Lines
    Georgia Tech researchers work underwater to remove cores from living coral colonies growing on Fanning Island in the central Pacific. In the laboratory, these “modern” cores provide records of the most recent period of climate changes for comparison to the fossil coral climate reconstructions.
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