Image credit - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy
In a pump-probe experiment, the pump laser pulse first excites the 2D material, and later, at controllable time-delays, the probe laser pulse returns to the energy-pumped site to provide information about the evolution of the pump’s effect on the material. In the ORNL experiment, absorption of pumped energy first generated two excitons, X1 and X2. Dissociation of these excitons through hole trapping at the substrate freed their electrons. Then the arriving probe pulse generated new electron–hole pairs, which joined the remaining free electrons to form trions T1 and T2.