Microscopic View of Coughed-Up Mucus may be New Biomarker for Cystic Fibrosis Progression

Micro- and nano-scale properties in cystic fibrosis mucus appear to change as the disease progresses, and this discovery may help establish a new biomarker to better manage care and improve outcomes for people with the disease.


Newswise — WASHINGTON, D.C., October 14, 2015 -- Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes very thick mucus secretions to build up within the lungs, which in turn, leads to inflammation and chronic lung infections. The disease can reduce the life expectancy of those afflicted to about 40 years, with death primarily due to lung failure.

A team of researchers at the Center for Nanomedicine at the Wilmer Eye Institute, part of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine has been studying mucus in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Their primary goal was to design inhalable therapeutic nanoparticles that cross the cystic fibrosis mucus barrier in the lung, to help restore normal function.

But the work recently led the researchers to the unexpected discovery that mucus appears to change as the disease progresses. They found that the mobility of these nanoparticles could vary widely in mucus from different patients. They will describe their findings this week during The Society of Rheology’s 87th Annual Meeting, being held Oct. 11-15, 2015, in Baltimore, Md. Rheology is the branch of physics that deals with the deformation and flow of matter.

“At the time of our discovery, we didn’t have a great explanation for this finding,” said Gregg Duncan, a postdoctoral fellow. “So, we set out to figure out what caused the differences and whether or not it was related to cystic fibrosis lung disease severity.”

They explored these differences by using a technique called “multiple particle tracking,” which allowed them to take videos of nanoparticle movement within cystic fibrosis mucus, using a fluorescent microscope.

That enabled the researchers to interpret “the speed at which nanoparticles move in cystic fibrosis mucus, to relate it to the mucus gel’s properties on extremely short length scales from micrometers (one millionth of a meter) to nanometers (one billionth of a meter),” explained Duncan.

Prior studies of cystic fibrosis mucus were somewhat limited in their ability to characterize micro- to nano-scale properties. “Changes of these length scales in cystic fibrosis mucus may dictate how pathogens spread in the lung and the ability of immune cells to fight infection,” Duncan said. “Our findings suggest that the micro- and nano-scale properties in cystic fibrosis mucus change in patients as their disease progresses.”

In terms of applications for their findings, there are currently no available biomarkers that reliably predict pulmonary exacerbations, a drastic decline in lung health. That knowledge would help to better manage cystic fibrosis patient care. “Our hope is that this approach will provide more insights into the cystic fibrosis lung microenvironment that are important to maintaining proper lung function,” said Duncan.

The next step for the team will be to expand their studies “to larger patient populations, to assess whether our measurement can be used as a biomarker in cystic fibrosis, to determine the risks of pulmonary exacerbation,” said Duncan.

Presentation #PO17, "Altered Sputum Microstructure as a Marker of Airway Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis Patients," by Gregg A. Duncan, James Jung, Michael P. Boyle, Natalie E. West, Jung Soo Suk and Justin Hanes will be in a poster session that starts at 6:05 p.m. on Wednesday, October 14, 2015 in the Atrium Lobby of the Hyatt Regency Baltimore. ABSTRACT: https://www.rheology.org/SoR15a/ViewPaper?ID=316

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ABOUT THE MEETING

The 87th Annual Meeting of The Society of Rheology will be held in Baltimore, Md., on Oct. 11-15, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Baltimore. It will feature ten thematic sessions and a poster session, which includes the annual student/post-doc poster competition. PRESS REGISTRATION

We will grant free registration to any credentialed journalist or press officer upon request. If you are a reporter and would like to attend, contact Jason Bardi (jbardi@aip.org, 240-535-4954), who can also help with setting up interviews and obtaining images, sound clips, or background information.

USEFUL LINKS

Main meeting website: http://www.rheology.org/sor/annual_meeting/2015Oct/info.htm Itinerary planner and technical program: https://www.rheology.org/SoR15a/Conference Hotel: http://baltimore.hyatt.com/en/hotel/home.html

ABOUT THE SOCIETY OF RHEOLOGY

The Society of Rheology is composed of physicists, chemists, biologists, engineers, and mathematicians interested in advancing and applying rheology, which is defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter. The Society holds an annual meeting and publishes the bimonthly Journal of Rheology. For more information, see: http://www.rheology.org

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