When wildfires burn up forests, they don't just damage the trees. They destroy a key part of the global carbon cycle. Restoring those trees as quickly as possible could tip the scale in favor of mitigating severe climate change.
Lisa A. McCauley, a spatial analyst at The Nature Conservancy, explains how quick action to thin out vegetation will actually increase carbon storage in forests by the end of this century. Her new paper is published in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications, and she will present the findings this August at ESA's 2019 Annual Meeting in Louisville, KY.
"With predictions of widespread mortality of western U.S. forests under climate change," McCauley states, "our study addresses how large-scale restoration of overly-dense, fire-adapted forests is one of the few tools available to managers that could minimize the adverse effects of climate change and maintain forest cover."
Forests are a vital carbon sink - a natural sponge that pulls carbon out of the atmosphere through plant photosynthesis. Because carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities are a major cause of climate change, forests do humanity a huge service by disposing of much of its gaseous waste.
Unfortunately, wildfires are more common than they used to be. Higher tree density, more dry wood for fuel, and a warmer, drier climate have caused an increase in the frequency, size, and severity of wildfires in western U.S. forests. Restoring forests in a timely manner is critical in making subsequent wildfires are less likely. The U.S. Forest Service states that rehabilitation and restoration takes many years, and includes planting trees, reestablishing native species, restoring habitats, and treating for invasive plants. There is an urgent need for such restoration in the southwest U.S. to balance out the carbon cycle.
Enter, the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI). The U.S. Forest Service began the 4FRI in 2010 to restore 2.4 million acres (3750 square miles) of national forests in Arizona. The goals of the 4FRI are to restore the structure, pattern, composition, and health of fire-adapted (dependent on occasional fires for their lifecycle) ponderosa pine ecosystems; reduce fuels and the risk of unnaturally severe wildfires; and provide for wildlife and plant diversity. Doing so involves a full suite of restoration projects that are carried out by US Forest Service personnel, partners and volunteers, and contractors. Managers of the four forests - the Kaibab, Coconino, Apache-Sitgreaves, and Tonto - are engaged in a huge, collaborative initiative to with a diverse group of stakeholders to explore the best methods for restoring the ponderosa pine forests in the region.
One such exploration is a study in which researchers, including McCauley, use computer simulations to see how the carbon cycle and wildfire severity between the years 2010-2099 would be influenced by different rates of restoration of about 1500 square miles of forest.
A potential drawback to a very rapid restoration plan is that it includes the thinning out (harvesting) of dense, dry trees -- possibly by controlled burns -- to get rid of plants that could act as potential wildfire fuel. Reduction in overall vegetation could mean that the overall carbon uptake and storage of these forests would drop.
"The conventional wisdom has been that forest restoration in the western U.S. does not benefit carbon stocks," McCauley says. "However, with wildfire size, frequency and severity increasing, we believe that additional research is needed across more forests so that we can better understand the fate of carbon and forest cover, particularly for fire-adapted forests where tree densities exceed historical norms and the risks of climate-induced forest loss are increasing."
Interestingly, the simulations show that despite early decreases in the ecosystem's stored carbon, a rapid restoration plan increases total carbon storage by 11-20%, which is about 8-14 million metric tons of carbon by the end of the century. This is equal to the removal of carbon emissions from 67,000-123,000 passenger vehicles per year until 2100.
"By minimizing high-severity fires," McCauley explains, "accelerated forest thinning can stabilize forest carbon stocks and buy time - decades - to better adapt to the effects of climate change on forest cover."
Restored forests provide other benefits than just increased carbon storage in the next century. A restored fire-adapted forest would be less dense, with fewer trees but more diversity, allowing more sunlight to penetrate the canopy, increasing cover of grass and encouraging a more diverse understory. The wildfires that do occur would burn at lower severity as ground fires that consume grasses rather than torching canopies that kills trees.
McCauley says this study is unique because it is a large, landscape-scale study that uses data from a real-world restoration project--the largest restoration being implemented in the U.S. The results are indeed promising, indicating that restoration is likely to stabilize carbon and the benefits are greater when the pace of restoration is faster.
Her contributed talk at ESA 2019, "Large-scale forest restoration stabilizes carbon under climate change in Southwest U.S." is part of a session about carbon sequestration and climate and led by the United States Society for Ecological Economics (USSEE) - the co-host of this year's meeting. Other presentations in the session also include:
- Yards and trees reduce urban surface temperature during extreme heat. Alessandro Ossola and Michelle Leishman, Biological Sciences, Macquarie University; Andrew McGrath, Airborne Research Australia; Winston Chow, Department of Geography, National University of Singapore; Darrel G. Jenerette, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside.
- Bogging down a runaway train: A potential mitigating factor for the permafrost carbon-climate feedback. Lucas J. Albano, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto - Mississauga; Merritt R. Turetsky, Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph; Michelle C. Mack, Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University; and Evan S. Kane, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University.
- Coarse woody debris decay rates and carbon stocks in New Zealand's natural forest. Mark O. Kimberley, Peter N. Beets, and Thomas S.H. Pau;, Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand.
COS 73-2 - Large-scale forest restoration stabilizes carbon under climate change in Southwest U.S.
- Thursday, August 15, 2019, 8:20 AM
- Kentucky International Convention Center - M105/106
- Lisa A. McCauley, The Nature Conservancy
- Presentation abstract
- Contact: [email protected]">[email protected]
Lisa A. McCauley, Marcos D. Robles, Travis Woolley, Rob Marshall; The Nature Conservancy.
Alec M. Kretchun; Quantum Spatial. David F. Gori; University of Arizona
2019 Annual Meeting in Louisville, Kentucky
Bridging Communities and Ecosystems: Inclusion as an Ecological Imperative
11-16 August 2019
Ecologists from 50 U.S. states, U.S. territories, and countries around the world will converge on Louisville, Kentucky this August for the 104th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Up to 3,000 attendees are expected to gather for thousands of scientific presentations on breaking research and new ecological concepts at the Kentucky International Convention Center, August 11-16, 2019.
In the spirit of collaboration, inclusion and cross-disciplinary science, the Ecological Society of America will be holding its 104th Annual Meeting in partnership with the United States Society for Ecological Economics (USSEE), one of many regional professional organizations within the umbrella society of the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE).
The Opening Plenary features Karen Warkentin, professor in the Biology Department and the Women's, Gender & Sexuality Studies Program at Boston University, who will speak about, "All the variations matter: bridging disciplines and communities to study diversity in life history and sexual behavior." The event is free and open to the general public.
ESA invites press and institutional public information officers to attend for free. To apply, please contact ESA Public Information Manager Zoe Gentes directly at [email protected]">[email protected]. Walk-in registration will be available during the meeting.
The Ecological Society of America, founded in 1915, is the world's largest community of professional ecologists and a trusted source of ecological knowledge, committed to advancing the understanding of life on Earth. The 9,000 member Society publishes five journals and a membership bulletin and broadly shares ecological information through policy, media outreach, and education initiatives. The Society's Annual Meeting attracts 3,000 - 4,000 attendees and features the most recent advances in ecological science. Visit the ESA website at http://www.