Impaired Blood Clotting May Explain Higher COVID-19 Risk

Higher enzyme levels in people with preexisting conditions may increase coronavirus susceptibility
American Physiological Society (APS)
16-Apr-2020 7:00 AM EDT, by American Physiological Society (APS)

Newswise — Rockville, Md. (April 16, 2020)—A new review suggests that higher-than-normal levels of an enzyme involved in blood clot prevention may be a common risk factor for developing COVID-19—a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2—in some populations. The review is published in Physiological Reviews.

People with diabetes, high blood pressure and heart, lung or kidney disease have a higher risk of developing COVID-19. In addition, people with preexisting medical conditions typically become sicker when infected with SARS-CoV-2 than those in otherwise good health. Research has found that one of the leading causes of death from COVID-19 is hemorrhage or bleeding disorders and that one of the characteristics of the disease is overactivity of the system responsible for removing blood clots (hyperfibrinolysis).

Elevated levels of plasminogen and plasmin have been found to be a common factor in people with diabetes and preexisting heart, lung and kidney conditions. Plasminogen is an inactive substance in the blood. When substances in the cells of the blood vessels activate plasminogen, it generates plasmin, an enzyme that removes blood clots from the blood. Higher-than-normal levels of both of these chemicals can lead to severe bleeding.

Studies report that more than 97% of people hospitalized with COVID-19 have increased levels of D-dimer, a protein in the blood that is produced when a blood clot dissolves. D-dimer levels are associated with the amount of virus detected in the body and continue to rise as the severity of COVID-19 increases. This is particularly true in people who develop the often-fatal complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). “In contrast, D-dimer levels decreased to control levels in [COVID-19] survivors or non-ARDS patients,” the review’s authors wrote. “The time [period] for the elevated D-dimer [to go] down in mild [cases] or survivors is dependent. Generally, it takes at least one week for mild [cases] but longer for severe patients,” explained Hong-Long Ji, MD, PhD, corresponding author of the review.

“Measurements of plasmin(ogen) levels and its enzymatic activity may be important biomarkers of disease severity” in people with COVID-19, the authors wrote. In addition, treating hyperfibrinolysis “may prove to be a promising strategy for improving the clinical outcomes of patients with [additional medical] conditions,” they added.

Read the full article, “Elevated plasmin(ogen) as a common risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility,” published in Physiological Reviews. This article is part of a special, freely accessible coronavirus-related collection of articles published in APS journals.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function in health and disease. Established in 1887, the American Physiological Society (APS) was the first U.S. society in the biomedical sciences field. The Society represents 9,000 members and publishes 15 peer-reviewed journals with a worldwide readership.

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY




Filters close

Showing results

110 of 2011
Released: 29-May-2020 11:55 PM EDT
Heart surgery stalled as COVID-19 spread
University of Ottawa

As the novel coronavirus spread across the globe in early 2020, hospitals worldwide scaled back medical procedures, including life-saving heart surgery, to deal with the emerging threat of COVID-19.

Released: 29-May-2020 11:30 PM EDT
UCLA AASC & FSPH launch COVID-19 Multilingual Resource Hub to support safety for diverse communities
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health COVID-19 Multilingual Resource Hub to support safety for diverse communities; partnership develops resources for COVID-19 response

Newswise: UTEP Study Examines COVID-19 Stress, Coping Strategies, and Well-Being
Released: 29-May-2020 6:15 PM EDT
UTEP Study Examines COVID-19 Stress, Coping Strategies, and Well-Being
University of Texas at El Paso

Emre Umucu, Ph.D., assistant professor of rehabilitation counseling at The University of Texas at El Paso, and Beatrice Lee, an incoming rehabilitation counseling faculty member, examined the perceived stress levels and coping mechanisms related to COVID-19, and how coping affects well-being in people with self-reported chronic conditions and disabilities.

Newswise: 233197_web.jpg
Released: 29-May-2020 4:55 PM EDT
CT findings of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children 'often negative'
American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS)

An investigation published open-access in the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) revealed a high frequency of negative chest CT findings among pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19), while also suggesting that bilateral, lower lobe-predominant ground-glass opacities (GGOs) are common in the subset of patients with positive CT findings.

Newswise: 233198_web.jpg
Released: 29-May-2020 4:40 PM EDT
Modelling predicts COVID-19 resurgence if physical distancing relaxed
University of Guelph

If physical distancing measures in Ontario are relaxed too much or too quickly, the province could see hospitals overwhelmed with COVID-19 patients as well as exponential growth in deaths, concludes new research involving a University of Guelph infectious disease modeller.

Released: 29-May-2020 3:35 PM EDT
Using Wastewater to Track, Contain SARS-CoV-2
SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Researchers took a novel approach to tracking the virus that causes COVID-19 that promises to be cost effective and ensure privacy by using a method that surveils for the virus in a local's untreated wastewater facilities.

Newswise: fimmu-11-01208-g001.jpg
Released: 29-May-2020 2:40 PM EDT
Genetics May Explain High COVID-19 Mortality in Italy, Inform Global Pandemic Response
Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO)

Researchers predict the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) gene has a key role in shaping immune response to COVID.

Released: 29-May-2020 1:40 PM EDT
Study finds surge in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine prescriptions during COVID-19
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital examines changes in prescription patterns in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Showing results

110 of 2011

close
0.87592