Impaired Blood Clotting May Explain Higher COVID-19 Risk

Higher enzyme levels in people with preexisting conditions may increase coronavirus susceptibility
American Physiological Society (APS)
16-Apr-2020 7:00 AM EDT, by American Physiological Society (APS)

Newswise — Rockville, Md. (April 16, 2020)—A new review suggests that higher-than-normal levels of an enzyme involved in blood clot prevention may be a common risk factor for developing COVID-19—a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2—in some populations. The review is published in Physiological Reviews.

People with diabetes, high blood pressure and heart, lung or kidney disease have a higher risk of developing COVID-19. In addition, people with preexisting medical conditions typically become sicker when infected with SARS-CoV-2 than those in otherwise good health. Research has found that one of the leading causes of death from COVID-19 is hemorrhage or bleeding disorders and that one of the characteristics of the disease is overactivity of the system responsible for removing blood clots (hyperfibrinolysis).

Elevated levels of plasminogen and plasmin have been found to be a common factor in people with diabetes and preexisting heart, lung and kidney conditions. Plasminogen is an inactive substance in the blood. When substances in the cells of the blood vessels activate plasminogen, it generates plasmin, an enzyme that removes blood clots from the blood. Higher-than-normal levels of both of these chemicals can lead to severe bleeding.

Studies report that more than 97% of people hospitalized with COVID-19 have increased levels of D-dimer, a protein in the blood that is produced when a blood clot dissolves. D-dimer levels are associated with the amount of virus detected in the body and continue to rise as the severity of COVID-19 increases. This is particularly true in people who develop the often-fatal complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). “In contrast, D-dimer levels decreased to control levels in [COVID-19] survivors or non-ARDS patients,” the review’s authors wrote. “The time [period] for the elevated D-dimer [to go] down in mild [cases] or survivors is dependent. Generally, it takes at least one week for mild [cases] but longer for severe patients,” explained Hong-Long Ji, MD, PhD, corresponding author of the review.

“Measurements of plasmin(ogen) levels and its enzymatic activity may be important biomarkers of disease severity” in people with COVID-19, the authors wrote. In addition, treating hyperfibrinolysis “may prove to be a promising strategy for improving the clinical outcomes of patients with [additional medical] conditions,” they added.

Read the full article, “Elevated plasmin(ogen) as a common risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility,” published in Physiological Reviews. This article is part of a special, freely accessible coronavirus-related collection of articles published in APS journals.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function in health and disease. Established in 1887, the American Physiological Society (APS) was the first U.S. society in the biomedical sciences field. The Society represents 9,000 members and publishes 15 peer-reviewed journals with a worldwide readership.

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY




Filters close

Showing results

1120 of 2584
Released: 15-Jul-2020 5:35 PM EDT
Researchers Identify Genetic Factors that May Influence COVID-19 Susceptibility
Cleveland Clinic

A new Cleveland Clinic study has identified genetic factors that may influence susceptibility to COVID-19. Published today in BMC Medicine, the study findings could guide personalized treatment for COVID-19.

Released: 15-Jul-2020 4:30 PM EDT
COVID-19 Travel Patterns in New Jersey
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

At the height of the coronavirus shutdown in the spring, travel to more than 150,000 points of interest throughout New Jersey, including retail, health care, food stores and other essential and non-essential establishments decreased up to 80 percent compared to the first week of March when the state was still opened, according to a Rutgers report.

Newswise: ShortTermDistancing.jpg
Released: 15-Jul-2020 4:10 PM EDT
Social distancing and COVID-19: A law of diminishing returns
Washington University in St. Louis

Modeling from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis shows how social distancing could have better been implemented. The key? Longer periods of distancing would have helped — but only to a point. More needed to be done.

Newswise: About nine family members to suffer grief from every COVID-19 fatality
Released: 15-Jul-2020 3:05 PM EDT
About nine family members to suffer grief from every COVID-19 fatality
Penn State Institute for Computational and Data Sciences

Deaths from COVID-19 will have a ripple effect causing impacts on the mental health and health of surviving family members. But the extent of that impact has been hard to assess until now. Every death from COVID-19 will impact approximately nine surviving family members, according to a study.

Released: 15-Jul-2020 2:45 PM EDT
People with Coronavirus Symptoms More Likely to Have General Psychiatric Disorders and Loneliness
University of Cambridge

People who have or had COVID-19 symptoms are more likely to develop general psychiatric disorders and are lonelier, with women and young people more at risk, says a just-published study co-authored at Cambridge Judge Business School.

Released: 15-Jul-2020 1:10 PM EDT
In one hour, surface coating inactivates virus that causes COVID-19
Virginia Tech

A Virginia Tech chemical engineering professor has developed a surface coating that, when painted on common objects, inactivates SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Released: 15-Jul-2020 1:05 PM EDT
After universal masking, health care worker COVID-19 rates drop at Mass General Brigham
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

In March of 2020, Mass General Brigham implemented a new policy: everyone working at the hospitals would be required to wear a surgical mask.

Newswise: 237522_web.jpg
Released: 15-Jul-2020 12:40 PM EDT
Global sentiments towards COVID-19 shifts from fear to anger
Nanyang Technological University

The fear that people developed at the start of the COVID-19 outbreak has given way to anger over the course of the pandemic, a study of global sentiments led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has found.


Showing results

1120 of 2584

close
1.35058