Impaired Blood Clotting May Explain Higher COVID-19 Risk

Higher enzyme levels in people with preexisting conditions may increase coronavirus susceptibility
American Physiological Society (APS)
16-Apr-2020 7:00 AM EDT, by American Physiological Society (APS)

Newswise — Rockville, Md. (April 16, 2020)—A new review suggests that higher-than-normal levels of an enzyme involved in blood clot prevention may be a common risk factor for developing COVID-19—a respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2—in some populations. The review is published in Physiological Reviews.

People with diabetes, high blood pressure and heart, lung or kidney disease have a higher risk of developing COVID-19. In addition, people with preexisting medical conditions typically become sicker when infected with SARS-CoV-2 than those in otherwise good health. Research has found that one of the leading causes of death from COVID-19 is hemorrhage or bleeding disorders and that one of the characteristics of the disease is overactivity of the system responsible for removing blood clots (hyperfibrinolysis).

Elevated levels of plasminogen and plasmin have been found to be a common factor in people with diabetes and preexisting heart, lung and kidney conditions. Plasminogen is an inactive substance in the blood. When substances in the cells of the blood vessels activate plasminogen, it generates plasmin, an enzyme that removes blood clots from the blood. Higher-than-normal levels of both of these chemicals can lead to severe bleeding.

Studies report that more than 97% of people hospitalized with COVID-19 have increased levels of D-dimer, a protein in the blood that is produced when a blood clot dissolves. D-dimer levels are associated with the amount of virus detected in the body and continue to rise as the severity of COVID-19 increases. This is particularly true in people who develop the often-fatal complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). “In contrast, D-dimer levels decreased to control levels in [COVID-19] survivors or non-ARDS patients,” the review’s authors wrote. “The time [period] for the elevated D-dimer [to go] down in mild [cases] or survivors is dependent. Generally, it takes at least one week for mild [cases] but longer for severe patients,” explained Hong-Long Ji, MD, PhD, corresponding author of the review.

“Measurements of plasmin(ogen) levels and its enzymatic activity may be important biomarkers of disease severity” in people with COVID-19, the authors wrote. In addition, treating hyperfibrinolysis “may prove to be a promising strategy for improving the clinical outcomes of patients with [additional medical] conditions,” they added.

Read the full article, “Elevated plasmin(ogen) as a common risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility,” published in Physiological Reviews. This article is part of a special, freely accessible coronavirus-related collection of articles published in APS journals.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function in health and disease. Established in 1887, the American Physiological Society (APS) was the first U.S. society in the biomedical sciences field. The Society represents 9,000 members and publishes 15 peer-reviewed journals with a worldwide readership.

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY




Filters close

Showing results

2130 of 2869
Released: 10-Aug-2020 3:45 PM EDT
Vaccine to prevent tuberculosis may help limit spread of COVID-19, Missouri S&T researchers say
Missouri University of Science and Technology

A vaccine developed about a century ago to prevent tuberculosis may also help prevent the transmission of COVID-19, according to two Missouri S&T researchers who examined the spread of COVID-19 among countries that require the vaccine and those that do not.The Missouri S&T researchers analyzed COVID-19-related death and incidence rates among nations that require the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccine.

Released: 10-Aug-2020 2:50 PM EDT
Cancer care and screenings must remain a priority during COVID-19
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is committed to safely providing patient care and cancer screenings throughout the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

Released: 10-Aug-2020 2:45 PM EDT
What the rest of the world can learn from South Korea's COVID-19 response
University of Colorado Denver

CU Denver researcher investigates how South Korean policy enabled the country to flatten the curve without economic disaster

Released: 10-Aug-2020 2:35 PM EDT
Tulane researchers studying rise in intimate partner violence amid COVID-19 pandemic
Tulane University

Tulane mental health experts say many of the strategies that are critical to ensuring public health are having a major impact on families experiencing intimate partner violence., also known as IPV.

Released: 10-Aug-2020 2:15 PM EDT
Mouthwashes could reduce the risk of coronavirus transmission
Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Sars-Cov-2 viruses can be inactivated using certain commercially available mouthwashes.

Newswise: Coronavirus transmission risk increases along wildlife supply chains
Released: 10-Aug-2020 2:05 PM EDT
Coronavirus transmission risk increases along wildlife supply chains
PLOS

oronaviruses were detected in a high proportion of bats and rodents in Viet Nam from 2013 to 2014, with an increasing proportion of positive samples found along the wildlife supply chain from traders to large markets to restaurants, according to a study published August 10 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Amanda Fine of the Wildlife Conservation Society and colleagues.

Newswise: Portable UV Disinfection Chambers Could Help Address PPE Shortage
Released: 10-Aug-2020 1:55 PM EDT
Portable UV Disinfection Chambers Could Help Address PPE Shortage
Georgia Institute of Technology

Portable disinfection chambers that use ultraviolet (UV) light to inactivate virus particles could allow emergency medical technicians, police officers, healthcare workers, pharmacy technicians, and others to quickly disinfect their personal protective equipment (PPE) as they need it.

Newswise: Artificial intelligence could improve accuracy, efficiency of CT screening for COVID-19 diagnosis
Released: 10-Aug-2020 1:45 PM EDT
Artificial intelligence could improve accuracy, efficiency of CT screening for COVID-19 diagnosis
University of Notre Dame

Researchers at the University of Notre Dame are developing a new technique using artificial intelligence (AI) that would improve CT screening to more quickly identify patients with the coronavirus.

Newswise: COVID-19TrendsWebsite-768x596.jpg
Released: 10-Aug-2020 1:30 PM EDT
UCI researchers launch first-of-its-kind coronavirus statistics portal
University of California, Irvine

Irvine, Calif., Aug. 10, 2020 — Scientists at the University of California, Irvine have unveiled a public website that provides up-to-date statistics on coronavirus infections in Orange County, with comparisons to neighboring and other California counties. The site displays information collected from the California Open Data Portal in an easily comprehended format, giving visitors quick access to the most relevant data on hospitalized patients with COVID-19, intensive care unit patients, new daily cases and new daily deaths caused by the disease.


Showing results

2130 of 2869

close
1.74755