Association for Psychological Science

Contracting COVID-19, Lifestyle and Social Connections May Play a Role

Newswise — Summary: Current research indicates that unhealthy lifestyle choices, including smoking and lack of exercise, along with emotional stressors like social isolation and interpersonal conflicts are important risk factors for developing upper respiratory infections. It is possible these same factors also increase the risk of contracting COVID-19.

Unhealthy lifestyle choices, like smoking and avoiding exercise, are known risk factors for certain cancers and cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research reveals that these risk factors and a lack of supportive social connections can also increase the risk of developing respiratory infections, like the common cold and influenza.

A new article published in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science explores how lifestyle, social, and psychological factors also may increase the risk of contracting COVID-19.

“We know little about why some of the people exposed to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 are more likely to develop the disease than others,” said Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University and one of the authors on the paper. “Our research on psychological factors that predict susceptibility to other respiratory viruses may provide clues to help identify factors that matter for COVID-19.”

Through a series of studies spanning more than 30 years, Cohen and his team examined how lifestyle, social, and psychological factors affect whether or not healthy adults exposed to respiratory viruses become ill. This work focused on eight viral strains that cause the common cold and two that cause influenza.

“In our work, we intentionally exposed people to cold and influenza viruses and studied whether psychological and social factors predict how effective the immune system is in suppressing infection, or preventing or mitigating the severity of illness,” said Cohen. “We found a strong correlation between social and psychological stressors and increased susceptibility.”

Intriguingly, the researchers also found that social integration and social support offer a protective shield against respiratory infection and illness.

Until now, the only tactics to slow the spread of coronavirus have been behavioral changes that reduce the probability of being exposed to the virus, such as stay-at-home measures and social-distancing requirements. These same behaviors, however, are often associated with interpersonal stressors, like loneliness, loss of employment, and familial conflict. According to the researchers, these stressors may be powerful predictors of how a person will respond if exposed to coronavirus because of the stressors’ direct physiological effects on immunity and their psychological factors, which are thought to have their influence through the mind-body connection. 

Cohen’s work demonstrates that psychological and social stressors are associated with an overproduction of proinflammatory chemicals known as cytokines in response to cold and influenza viruses. In turn, this excess of inflammation was associated with an increased risk of becoming ill.

Similarly, research on COVID-19 has shown that producing an excess of proinflammatory cytokines is associated with more severe COVID-19 infections, suggesting that a stress-triggered excessive cytokine response might also contribute to excessive inflammation and symptoms in COVID-19 patients.

Cohen and his colleagues acknowledge that, as of now, there are no firmly established links between behavioral and psychological factors and the risk for disease and death in persons exposed to the corona virus that causes COVID-19. However, their prior body of research may be relevant to the current pandemic because, they note, the most potent predictors of disease, interpersonal and economic stressors, are the types of stressors that are commonly experienced among those who are isolated or in quarantine.

“If you have a diverse social network (social integration), you tend to take better care of yourself (no smoking, moderate drinking, more sleep and exercise),” said Cohen. “Also if people perceive that those in their social network will help them during a period of stress or adversity (social support) then it attenuates the effect of the stressor and is less impactful on their health.”

# # #

Graphic inviting user to visit APS's COVID-19 Coverage page

APS is the leading international organization dedicated to advancing scientific psychology across disciplinary and geographic borders. Our members provide a richer understanding of the world through their research, teaching, and application of psychological science. We are passionate about supporting psychological scientists in these pursuits, which we do by sharing cutting-edge research across all areas of the field through our journals and conventions; promoting the integration of scientific perspectives within psychological science and with related disciplines; fostering global connections among our members; engaging the public with our research to promote broader understanding and awareness of psychological science; and advocating for increased support for psychological science in the public policy arena.

Launched by the Association for Psychological Science in 2006, Perspectives on Psychological Science is a bimonthly journal publishing an eclectic mix of provocative reports and articles, including broad integrative reviews, overviews of research programs, meta-analyses, theoretical statements, and articles on topics such as the philosophy of science, opinion pieces about major issues in the field, autobiographical reflections of senior members of the field, and even occasional humorous essays and sketches. For a copy of this article, “Psychosocial Vulnerabilities to Upper Respiratory Infectious Illness: Implications for Susceptibility to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19),” and access to other research in Perspectives on Psychological Science, contact news@psychologicalscience.org. Cohen, S., et. al, (2020) Psychosocial Vulnerabilities to Upper Respiratory Infectious Illness: Implications for Susceptibility to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691620942516

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY




Filters close

Showing results

1120 of 3765
Newswise: Research Team Discovers the Molecular Processes in Kidney Cells That Attract and Feed COVID-19
Released: 23-Oct-2020 10:40 AM EDT
Research Team Discovers the Molecular Processes in Kidney Cells That Attract and Feed COVID-19
Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan

What about the kidneys make them a hotspot for COVID-19’s cytokine storm? A research team says it’s the presence of a protein found on specialized renal transport cells.

access_time Embargo lifts in 2 days
Embargo will expire: 27-Oct-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 23-Oct-2020 8:25 AM EDT

A reporter's PressPass is required to access this story until the embargo expires on 27-Oct-2020 11:00 AM EDT The Newswise PressPass gives verified journalists access to embargoed stories. Please log in to complete a presspass application. If you have not yet registered, please Register. When you fill out the registration form, please identify yourself as a reporter in order to advance to the presspass application form.

Newswise: New Landmark Study at UM School of Medicine Finds Aspirin Use Reduces Risk of Death in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Released: 22-Oct-2020 2:40 PM EDT
New Landmark Study at UM School of Medicine Finds Aspirin Use Reduces Risk of Death in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
University of Maryland Medical Center

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were taking a daily low-dose aspirin to protect against cardiovascular disease had a significantly lower risk of complications and death compared to those who were not taking aspirin, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM).

Released: 22-Oct-2020 2:25 PM EDT
Tocilizumab doesn't ease symptoms or prevent death in moderately ill COVID-19 inpatients
Massachusetts General Hospital

The drug tocilizumab (Actemra) does not reduce the need for breathing assistance with mechanical ventilation or prevent death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with COVID-19, according to a new study led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).

Released: 22-Oct-2020 2:10 PM EDT
New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo said that nursing homes "never needed" to accept patients who tested positive for COVID-19, but they did accept them
Newswise

According to a report from the New York State Department of Health, "6,326 COVID-positive residents were admitted to [nursing home] facilities" following Cuomo's mandate that nursing homes accept the readmission of COVID-positive patients from hospitals. Therefore we rate his claim as false.

Released: 22-Oct-2020 2:10 PM EDT
U of M trial shows hydroxychloroquine does not prevent COVID-19 in health care workers
University of Minnesota

University of Minnesota Medical School physician researchers studied hydroxychloroquine as a treatment to prevent COVID-19 for those with high-risk for exposure to the virus - health care workers.

Newswise: UNLV Physician: Why COVID-19 Makes Flu Shots More Important Than Ever
Released: 22-Oct-2020 1:50 PM EDT
UNLV Physician: Why COVID-19 Makes Flu Shots More Important Than Ever
University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV)

As the race for a COVID-19 vaccine intensifies, health care officials are reminding the public not to forget another important vaccine this fall: the flu shot. Flu season in the U.S. technically began in September, with illnesses expected to peak in December and February, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Less than half of Americans received a flu vaccine during the 2019-2020 flu season, and a staggering 405,000 hospitalizations and 22,000 deaths were attributed to influenza.

Newswise: 246630_web.jpg
Released: 22-Oct-2020 1:45 PM EDT
Immune response the probable underlying cause of neural damage in COVID-19
University of Gothenburg

It is probably the immune response to, rather than the virus in itself, that causes sudden confusion and other symptoms from the nervous system in some patients with COVID-19. This is shown by a study of cases involving six Swedish patients, now published in the journal Neurology.

Released: 22-Oct-2020 1:35 PM EDT
COVID-19 study: Meaning in life and self-control protect against stress
University of Innsbruck

Numerous studies over the last few weeks have pointed out that the effects of the Corona pandemic on people's mental health can be enormous and affect large parts of the population.

Newswise: Hackensack Meridian CDI, University of Michigan Demonstrate Better, Faster COVID-19 Antibody Testing
Released: 22-Oct-2020 1:30 PM EDT
Hackensack Meridian CDI, University of Michigan Demonstrate Better, Faster COVID-19 Antibody Testing
Hackensack Meridian Health

A new portable “lab on a chip,” developed by the U-M scientists and demonstrated with help of the CDI, can identify the presence of COVID-19 antibodies in blood donors with greater speed and efficiency


Showing results

1120 of 3765

close
0.87854