Single-Shot COVID-19 Vaccine Generates Robust Immune Responses Against COVID-19 Variants

Newswise — BOSTON – In the three months since Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, more than 10 million Americans have received the vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The single-shot viral vector vaccine — developed in collaboration with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) immunologist Dan Barouch, MD, PhD — was authorized for use based on clinical trial data showing strong clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in the United States, Latin America and South Africa.

In a new study published in Nature, Barouch, Director of BIDMC's Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, and colleagues report on the antibody and cellular immune responses generated by the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against the original viral strain and against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. The team found that this vaccine induced immune responses against all the viral variants. 

“The concern is whether SARS-CoV-2 variants may reduce the efficacy of current vaccines that were designed to protect against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain at the beginning of the pandemic,” said Barouch, senior author of the study and also Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.  “These findings therefore have important implications for vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.”

To explore the immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S, Barouch and colleagues at BIDMC administered one or two doses of Johnson & Johnson’s investigational vaccine to 20 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55. All volunteers were participants of a larger multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1/2a study to evaluate the vaccine at various doses and schedules. The researchers then used multiple methods to assess antibody and cellular immune responses against the original viral strain (WA1/2020) and against the viral variants first identified in South Africa (B.1.1351), the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), Brazil (P.1) and California (CAL.20C).

Compared to antibody responses against WA1/2020, the data showed reductions in neutralizing antibodies against the B.1.1351 and P.1 strains. In contrast, non-neutralizing antibody responses and T cell responses were minimally impacted or not impacted by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Given the vaccine’s protective efficacy as demonstrated in Phase 3 clinical trials, non-neutralizing antibodies and/or T cell responses may contribute to protection against COVID-19.

The published Phase 3 efficacy data showed that the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine offered strong protection against symptomatic COVID-19 in South Africa and in Brazil where most sequenced COVID-19 cases were caused by variants. The findings contribute to our understanding of vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. 

“Although the mechanistic correlates of protection for COVID-19 are not yet known, the vaccine’s robust protective efficacy in these regions raises the possibility that non-neutralizing antibodies and/or T cell responses may also contribute to protection,” said Barouch, who is also a member of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard. “Alternatively, it is possible that low levels of neutralizing antibodies are sufficient for protection against COVID-19.”

Co-authors included Galit Alter of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard; Jingyou Yu, Jinyan Liu, Abishek Chandrashekar, Erica N. Borducchi, Lisa H. Tostanoski, Katherine McMahan, Catherine Jacob-Dolan, Aiquan Chang, Tochi Anioke, Michelle Lifton, Joseph Nkolola and Kathryn E Stephenson of BIDMC; Caroline Atyeo, Sally Shin of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; David R. Martinez, Ralph S. Baric of University of North Caroline at Chapel Hill; Paul Fields, Ian Kaplan and Harlan Robins of Adaptive Biotechnologies; Fatima Amanat and Florian Krammer of Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Mathieu Le Gars, Jerald Sadoff, Anne Marit de Groot, Dirk Heerwegh, Frank Struyf, Macaya Douoguih, Johan van Hoof and Hanneke Schuitemaker of Janssen.

This work was supported in part by Janssen Vaccines & Prevention, BV; the Ragon institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR); the Musk Foundation; the National Institutes of Health (grants CA260476, AI007151, AI 152296): the Boroughs Wellcome Fund Postdoctoral Enrichment Program Award; a Hannah H. Gray Fellowship from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; federal funds from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority under other transaction agreement HHS01002017 00018C.

Dr. Barouch is a co-inventor on related vaccine patents. Please see the publication for a complete list of competing interests.

About Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center is a patient care, teaching and research affiliate of Harvard Medical School and consistently ranks as a national leader among independent hospitals in National Institutes of Health funding. BIDMC is the official hospital of the Boston Red Sox. For more information, visit www.bidmc.org.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center is a part of Beth Israel Lahey Health, a health care system that brings together academic medical centers and teaching hospitals, community and specialty hospitals, more than 4,000 physicians and 35,000 employees in a shared mission to expand access to great care and advance the science and practice of medicine through groundbreaking research and education.

###

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY



Filters close

Showing results

110 of 6101
Released: 30-Jul-2021 2:05 PM EDT
Thinking Impaired in 60% of COVID-19 Survivors, Study Finds
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

In a sample of over 400 older adults in Argentina who had recovered from COVID-19, more than 60% displayed some degree of cognitive impairment, a researcher from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio reported July 29 at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference.

Released: 30-Jul-2021 11:50 AM EDT
Support for Government Mandates High and Increasing Over Time, Survey Finds
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

As the coronavirus Delta variant surges throughout the country and mask and vaccine mandates are being considered, a new national survey finds that almost 20 percent of Americans say it is unlikely that they will get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Newswise: How to Play with Your Children in Age-appropriate and Creative Ways When Schools Are Still Closed and Everyone Is Still Stuck at Home
Released: 30-Jul-2021 8:55 AM EDT
How to Play with Your Children in Age-appropriate and Creative Ways When Schools Are Still Closed and Everyone Is Still Stuck at Home
Chulalongkorn University

The COVID-19 situation may have restricted people’s space, but not their imagination. A Chula lecturer has given recommendations to parents who need to spend more time at home on select social activities to enhance children’s development in a safe and age-appropriate way.

Released: 30-Jul-2021 8:30 AM EDT
American Society of Anesthesiologists Strongly Encourages all Health Care Personnel to Get Vaccinated Against COVID-19
American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)

Amid the new surge of COVID-19 cases across the U.S., the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and eight professional societies associated with the specialty, are strongly encouraging the nation’s health care workers and all eligible Americans to get fully vaccinated with one of the COVID-19 vaccines. ASA and the associated societies remind the public that widespread vaccination is the most effective way to reduce illness and death.

Released: 29-Jul-2021 4:45 PM EDT
Which Voices Led Medical Misinformation in the Early Stages of COVID?
University of Cincinnati

In the early and thus far most devastating stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists were at a near loss on how to treat the deadly disease.

Released: 29-Jul-2021 4:40 PM EDT
Half of U.S. Parents May Not Vaccinate Their Youngest Child Against COVID-19
CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy

Even as the delta variant of Covid-19 sweeps the globe, leaving those who remain unvaccinated vulnerable, vaccination among adults and teenagers in the United States is stalling, giving rise to concerns over whether parents will vaccinate their young children once vaccines are approved for those under 12 years of age.

Newswise: COVID-19 update: coping with increased cases, breakthrough infections, national masking mandates and vaccine requirements
Released: 29-Jul-2021 4:05 PM EDT
COVID-19 update: coping with increased cases, breakthrough infections, national masking mandates and vaccine requirements
Keck Medicine of USC

Keck Medicine of USC experts speak out on the continued physical and emotional consequences of COVID-19

Released: 29-Jul-2021 3:45 PM EDT
FSMB: Spreading COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation May Put Medical License at Risk
Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB)

The Federation of State Medical Boards’ Board of Directors released statement in response to a dramatic increase in the dissemination of COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and disinformation by physicians and other health care professionals on social media platforms, online and in the media.

Newswise: Argonne’s Macal named Fellow of the Society for Computer Simulation International
Released: 29-Jul-2021 2:05 PM EDT
Argonne’s Macal named Fellow of the Society for Computer Simulation International
Argonne National Laboratory

Charles M. “Chick” Macal, a modeling and simulation expert at Argonne, garnered the distinguished title of Fellow of the Society for Computer Simulation International for his 20 years in the field and his recent studies on COVID-19 spread.


Showing results

110 of 6101

close
1.24818