DOE News
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    The DOE Science News Source is a Newswise initiative to promote research news from the Office of Science of the DOE to the public and news media.
    • 2017-12-05 12:05:46
    • Article ID: 686215

    Vehicles of the Future Put to the Test

    University of Delaware researchers built a transportation environment to study fuel efficiency in automated vehicles

    Next time you buy a car, what will you look for?  Most people want a model with automated features or better fuel economy than their current car, according to surveys from the American Automobile Association (AAA) and Consumer’s Union.

    In two new labs at the University of Delaware, these vehicles of the future are being put to the test.  

    Andreas Malikopoulos, who joined the University of Delaware’s Department of Mechanical Engineering in 2017, is researching ways to maximize fuel efficiency in a connected and automated vehicle (CAV). These vehicles use sensors, cameras and advanced control algorithms to adjust their operation to changing conditions with minimal or no driver input.

    Malikopoulos, an associate professor, develops and implements control technologies to allow vehicles to bypass roadblocks, change speed based on traffic conditions, and adjust their powertrains to optimize efficiency. 

    Malikopoulos is the principal investigator of a $4.2 million, three-year project funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) through its NEXT-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected and Automated On-Road Vehicles (NEXTCAR) program to improve the efficiency of an Audi A3 e-tron by at least 20 percent. The partners of this project are the University of Michigan, Boston University, Bosch Corporation, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    ARPAE’s NEXTCAR program was established to advance connected and automated vehicle technologies to reduce energy consumption in these vehicles by 20 percent. These vehicle improvements could yield many benefits for Americans, including improvements to urban air quality and a reduced dependence on imported oil, the Department of Energy reports.  

    For this project, Malikopoulos established a new facility equipped with six driving simulators that can represent human-driven vehicles all linked together in a transportation environment. This environment can represent any city in the world and include CAVs at any desired penetration so that the interaction between CAVs and human-driven vehicles can be studied.

    “Andreas is doing research that could help to shape the future of transportation,” said Ajay Prasad, chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. “UD mechanical engineers have a long history of innovation in safe, energy-efficient, zero-emission transportation, and Andreas is adding a new and important layer to our base of expertise.”

    Malikopoulos also built a second laboratory, a small-scale (1:24) “smart” city that covers an area of 20 x 20 feet with about 35 robotic cars to replicate real-world traffic scenarios in a small and controlled environment. UD’s Scaled Smart City has model streets lined with buildings, equipped with traffic lights and dotted with pedestrians. 

    Several UD graduate and undergraduate students along with high school students were involved in building UD’s Scaled Smart City this past summer under the mentorship of Malikopoulos.

    Malikopoulos assigned Adam Stager, a doctoral student in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, to lead this team of undergraduate and high school students for this project.

    “For me building UD’s Scale Smart City was the perfect opportunity to bring theory to reality,” Stager said. “In just a few months Prof. Malikopoulos' contagious excitement helped him gather and mentor a diverse set of students who came together to design this truly state-of-the-art research platform. Working on this project has been a lot of fun and a wonderful learning experience.”

    Luke Bhan, a senior at Avon Grove High School, has been working with Malikopoulos since June.

    “The UD Scaled Smart City was a lifetime opportunity for me to get involved on a very timely project and see how technology and mathematics can address real-world problems,” Bhan said. “It has been an incredible learning experience doing research with Prof. Malikopoulos and Adam."

    Smart cities are designed to optimize energy and safety, and CAVs can help toward establishing energy efficient mobility systems. These vehicles convey information to each other in order to keep drivers, passengers, and pedestrians safe while delivering everyone to their destinations on time.

    In UD’s Scaled Smart City, Malikopoulos tests new vehicle technologies on miniature models, without the costs and safety concerns that full-size vehicle tests would bring. The work in this testbed complements the results from the driving simulators. Malikopoulos and his students can use the simulators to develop algorithms and then use the miniature city’s hardware to test those algorithms. That helps him optimize the whole system.  

    “These are unique facilities that can help us visualize how eventually smart cities would look,” he said.

    Malikopoulos also plans to collaborate with other faculty at UD and use UD’s Small Scale Smart City to study sociotechnical aspects of smart cities. If automotive transportation systems become more efficient, people then might eventually change their commuting habits.

    For one, “we need to understand how travelers will change their behavior and provide the appropriate incentives that would yield a social system optimal behavior,” he said.  

    “In the UD College of Engineering, we are on the leading edge of research on smart cities,” said Babatunde Ogunnaike, dean of the College of Engineering. “Andreas brings a systems approach that will help establish UD further as one of the most innovative hubs of these activities.”

    In addition, Malikopoulos has joined UD’s Center for Fuel Cells and Batteries, where researchers from across the College of Engineering collaborate to develop eco-friendly fuel technologies.

    Before he joined UD, Malikopoulos was the deputy director and the lead of the Sustainable Mobility Theme of the Urban Dynamics Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and a senior researcher at General Motors Research & Development. Malikopoulos earned his doctoral degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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    Nanocages Trap and Separate Elusive Noble Gases

    Nanocages Trap and Separate Elusive Noble Gases

    Researchers have discovered how two-dimensional nanoscale cages trap some noble gases. These cages can trap atoms of argon, krypton, and xenon at above freezing temperatures. Noble gases are hard to trap using other methods because they condense at temperatures far below freezing.

    Parker Spiral Created in the Laboratory for the First Time Ever

    Parker Spiral Created in the Laboratory for the First Time Ever

    The Sun is a spinning ball of plasma that generates its own magnetic field. As the Sun spews out plasma, it generates solar wind that pulls the Sun's magnetic field along with it, twisting the magnetic field into what is called a Parker spiral. A recent experiment recreated this interaction at a small scale in the laboratory.

    A Chemical Extreme in the Periodic Table Is Revealed

    A Chemical Extreme in the Periodic Table Is Revealed

    Understanding how a small, gas-phase molecule containing an actinide atom reacts with other molecules helps us understand the chemistry of heavy elements. This study identified an extreme in the chemical behavior of curium, which lies at the center of the actinide series on the periodic table.

    New Technique Looks for Dark Matter Traces in Dark Places

    New Technique Looks for Dark Matter Traces in Dark Places

    A new study by scientists at Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, and the University of Michigan - published online this week in the journal Science - concludes that a possible dark matter-related explanation for a mysterious light signature in space is largely ruled out.

    Quantum Effect Triggers Unusual Material Expansion

    Quantum Effect Triggers Unusual Material Expansion

    New research conducted in part at Brookhaven Laboratory may bring a whole new class of chemical elements into a materials science balancing act for designing alloys for aviation and other applications.

    Upgrading Biomass with Selective Surface-Modified Catalysts

    Upgrading Biomass with Selective Surface-Modified Catalysts

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    Upconverting Nanolasers from Subwavelength Plasmons: Stability and Ultralow Powers

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    New Polymers that Close the Loop in Plastics Recycling

    New Polymers that Close the Loop in Plastics Recycling

    Scientists have designed a recyclable plastic called poly(diketoenamine)s, or PDKs. In contrast to many plastics, scientists can recover and free the monomers of PDK plastic from each other and additives by dunking it in a highly acidic solution. Manufacturers can then reassemble the plastic into a different shape, texture, and color without loss of performance or quality.

    Artificial Intelligence Joins the Team for Smarter & Faster Experiments

    Artificial Intelligence Joins the Team for Smarter & Faster Experiments

    Scientists have developed a new artificial intelligence method that automates experiments by autonomously defining and conducting the next step of an experiment without input from human researchers. It works by creating a model that fits experimental data, then using that model as the starting point for continuously refining the model to fit with new data.

    New Metasurface Helps Make the Switch to Terahertz Frequencies

    New Metasurface Helps Make the Switch to Terahertz Frequencies

    Researchers are finding new applications for radiation between microwaves and infrared light. This terahertz radiation could lead to new capabilities in imaging, communications, and other areas. To expand its use, researchers need switches that work in less than a thousandth of a second, have a high contrast between "off" and "on" states, and efficiently carry electrical charges. Researchers have developed a new metasurface that does all three.


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    Using Fiber Optics to Advance Safe and Renewable Energy

    Using Fiber Optics to Advance Safe and Renewable Energy

    Fiber optic cables, it turns out, can be incredibly useful scientific sensors. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have studied them for use in carbon sequestration, groundwater mapping, earthquake detection, and monitoring of Arctic permafrost thaw. Now they have been awarded new grants to develop fiber optics for two novel uses: monitoring offshore wind operations and underground natural gas storage.

    Brookhaven Lab's Lijun Wu Receives 2020 Chuck Fiori Award

    Brookhaven Lab's Lijun Wu Receives 2020 Chuck Fiori Award

    For the past 20 years, Wu has been advancing quantitative electron diffraction to study batteries, catalysts, and other energy materials.

    Jefferson Lab Temporarily Suspends Operations

    Jefferson Lab Temporarily Suspends Operations

    In an effort to minimize the risk to the Jefferson Lab workforce and in keeping with recommendations from national, state, and local authorities, the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is temporarily suspending operations.

    Department of Energy to Provide $60 Million for Science Computing Teams

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a plan to provide $60 million to establish multidisciplinary teams to develop new tools and techniques to harness supercomputers for scientific discovery.

    Fermilab, UNICAMP and Sao Paulo Research Foundation collaborate on major international projects for neutrino research

    Fermilab, UNICAMP and Sao Paulo Research Foundation collaborate on major international projects for neutrino research

    Under a new agreement, the University of Campinas and the Sao Paulo Research Foundation will play important roles in the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by Fermilab.

    New $21.4 million U.S.-Israel center aims to develop water-energy technologies

    New $21.4 million U.S.-Israel center aims to develop water-energy technologies

    A U.S.-Israel team that includes researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has received $21.4 million to develop new technologies to help solve global water challenges.

    Argonne's Valerii Vinokur awarded Fritz London Prize

    Argonne's Valerii Vinokur awarded Fritz London Prize

    Valerii Vinokur, a senior scientist and distinguished fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, has been awarded the Fritz London Memorial Prize for his work in condensed matter and theoretical physics.

    Register to Join a Special April 16 Media Tour of a Telescope Instrument that Will Create a 3D Map of Millions of Galaxies

    Register to Join a Special April 16 Media Tour of a Telescope Instrument that Will Create a 3D Map of Millions of Galaxies

    Members of the media are invited to attend a mid-April dedication of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), which is scheduled to begin its five-year mission to construct a 3D map of the universe in the coming months.

    Department of Energy to Provide $100 Million for Solar Fuels Research

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a plan to provide up to $100 million over five years for research on artificial photosynthesis for the production of fuels from sunlight.

    Fermi Award Now Open for Nominations

    The Department of Energy's Office of Science is accepting nominations for the 2020 Enrico Fermi Award.


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    Harvesting Energy from Light using Bio-inspired Artificial Cells

    Harvesting Energy from Light using Bio-inspired Artificial Cells

    Scientists designed and connected two different artificial cells to each other to produce molecules called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

    Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials

    Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials

    Bone and mollusk shells are composite systems that combine living cells and inorganic components. This allows them to regenerate and change structure while also being very strong and durable. Borrowing from this amazing complexity, researchers have been exploring a new class of materials called engineered living materials (ELMs).

    Excavating Quantum Information Buried in Noise

    Excavating Quantum Information Buried in Noise

    Researchers developed two new methods to assess and remove error in how scientists measure quantum systems. By reducing quantum "noise" - uncertainty inherent to quantum processes - these new methods improve accuracy and precision.

    How Electrons Move in a Catastrophe

    How Electrons Move in a Catastrophe

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) is a widely applicable material, from magnetic tunnel junctions to solid oxide fuel cells. However, when it gets thin, its behavior changes for the worse. The reason why was not known. Now, using two theoretical methods, a team determined what happens.

    When Ions and Molecules Cluster

    When Ions and Molecules Cluster

    How an ion behaves when isolated within an analytical instrument can differ from how it behaves in the environment. Now, Xue-Bin Wang at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory devised a way to bring ions and molecules together in clusters to better discover their properties and predict their behavior.

    Tune in to Tetrahedral Superstructures

    Tune in to Tetrahedral Superstructures

    Shape affects how the particles fit together and, in turn, the resulting material. For the first time, a team observed the self-assembly of nanoparticles with tetrahedral shapes.

    Tracing Interstellar Dust Back to the Solar System's Formation

    Tracing Interstellar Dust Back to the Solar System's Formation

    This study is the first to confirm dust particles pre-dating the formation of our solar system. Further study of these materials will enable a deeper understanding of the processes that formed and have since altered them.

    Investigating Materials that Can Go the Distance in Fusion Reactors

    Investigating Materials that Can Go the Distance in Fusion Reactors

    Future fusion reactors will require materials that can withstand extreme operating conditions, including being bombarded by high-energy neutrons at high temperatures. Scientists recently irradiated titanium diboride (TiB2) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to better understand the effects of fusion neutrons on performance.

    Better 3-D Imaging of Tumors in the Breast with Less Radiation

    Better 3-D Imaging of Tumors in the Breast with Less Radiation

    In breast cancer screening, an imaging technique based on nuclear medicine is currently being used as a successful secondary screening tool alongside mammography to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Now, a team is hoping to improve this imaging technique.

    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Scientists can use genetic information to measure if microbes in the environment can perform specific ecological roles. Researchers recently analyzed the genomes of over 6,000 microbial species.


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