DOE News
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    The DOE Science News Source is a Newswise initiative to promote research news from the Office of Science of the DOE to the public and news media.
    • 2019-01-03 14:05:46
    • Article ID: 705989

    Novel fiber-optic device lays foundation for quantum-enhanced measurements

    • Credit: Carlos Jones/ORNL

      Joseph Lukens, Raphael Pooser, and Nick Peters (from left) of ORNL’s Quantum Information Science Group developed and tested a new interferometer made from highly nonlinear fiber in pursuit of improved sensitivity at the quantum scale.

    By analyzing a pattern formed by the intersection of two beams of light, researchers can capture elusive details regarding the behavior of mysterious phenomena such as gravitational waves. Creating and precisely measuring these interference patterns would not be possible without instruments called interferometers.

    For over three decades, scientists have attempted to improve the sensitivity of interferometers to better detect how the number of photons—particles that make up visible light and other forms of electromagnetic energy—leads to changes in light phases. Attempts to achieve this goal are often hampered by optical loss and noise, both of which can decrease the accuracy of interferometer measurements.

    But now a team of researchers at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and tested a new interferometer to study the factors that contribute to these conditions, and they have devised solutions to overcome them. Their findings were published in the journal Applied Physics Letters, which promoted their paper to Editors’ Pick status. The editors award this distinction to noteworthy publications compiled in an exclusive list.

    Most interferometers contain either a beam splitter or a parametric amplifier to divide one beam of light into two, which allows researchers to measure changes in light phases relative to one another. The ORNL team of Joseph Lukens, Raphael Pooser, and Nick Peters, however, employed a specialized version of these devices called a highly nonlinear fiber-based phase-sensitive amplifier, which classifies their creation as a nonlinear interferometer (NLI).

    “The concept of interferometry involves splitting light into two modes—one senses a phase change and the other remains unchanged as a reference,” said Peters, a senior R&D staff member who leads the Quantum Communications Team at ORNL. “We want to build the most sensitive instruments allowed by quantum mechanics.”

    According to Peters, this NLI demonstrates the potential for eventual quantum-enhanced sensitivity improvements in later iterations of the instrument, which could advance fundamental science, as well as improve various engineering and practical applications. Among the devices that would benefit from more precise interferometers are gyroscopes, which can help stabilize and navigate airplanes and ships, and transducers, which convert energy from one form to another. For example, hydrophones—microphones that detect sound waves underwater—convert sound waves from natural disasters and marine wildlife into electrical signals researchers can successfully interpret.

    Despite the beneficial qualities of NLIs, they typically are not compatible with optical fibers used in sensors for these applications. The team hopes to bridge this gap by constructing their NLI out of a compatible material called highly nonlinear fiber.

    “The real significance of our work is that this interferometer is the first built with this special kind of fiber, which is important for two reasons,” Peters said. “One is that it provides potential

    for a notable sensitivity enhancement, and the other is that this fiber is commercial, which means its use could become widespread, once perfected.”

    Determining how to increase the sensitivity of interferometers can be difficult because of the standard quantum limit, which restricts the accuracy of measurements at the quantum scale. Beyond this barrier is the impassable Heisenberg limit, which marks the optimal level of performance for any interferometer.

    Although no one has reached this limit to date, the ORNL team consider their NLI to be an important stepping stone in their ongoing quest to get as close to the limit as possible. In the meantime, staff members in ORNL’s Quantum Information Science Group and the Quantum Sensing Team led by Pooser routinely build quantum sensors that surpass the quantum-classical boundary. They consider this work to be a significant achievement and an indication that the new NLI can exceed that boundary as well.

    “The standard quantum limit is defined by the number of available photons,” Peters said. “Using a special kind of light field can help lower the amount of noise in measurements taken by an interferometer, which increases sensitivity and helps measurements inch closer to the Heisenberg limit.”

    Upon deeper inspection of the interference pattern’s alternate light and dark bands of light, called bright and dark “fringes,” the researchers discovered the presence of noise cancellation at dark fringes by comparing output noise with shot-noise, which refers to the number of photons striking an object.

    “We had a favorable noise scaling at this dark fringe that will help us detect data at the shot-noise limit, which is what we want to do if we’re going to be able to show a sensitivity advantage with our NLI,” Peters said.

    Because this NLI demonstrates both phase-sensitive optical gain and correlated noise cancellation, the instrument provides useful guidelines for the future production of more advanced amplifiers for highly sensitive interferometers.

    Currently, the researchers are planning additional experiments with modified instrumentation to verify their conclusions and better understand the exact parameters of NLIs, hoping to replicate the functionality of the current device while minimizing loss and noise. According to Peters, they will have achieved their ultimate goal when an NLI built from practical nonlinear optical fibers demonstrates a notable sensitivity advantage compared with conventional interferometers.

    “These experiments suggest an improvement in the phase sensitivity of these instruments, and what we’ve done is take some steps toward reaching the Heisenberg limit,” Peters said.

    The team received funding for this project from the Office of Naval Research.

    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle LLC for DOE’s Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. DOE’s Office of Science is

    working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://science.energy.gov.—Elizabeth Rosenthal

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    The Best Topological Conductor Yet: Spiraling Crystal Is the Key to Exotic Discovery

    The Best Topological Conductor Yet: Spiraling Crystal Is the Key to Exotic Discovery

    A team of researchers working at Berkeley Lab has discovered the strongest topological conductor yet, in the form of thin crystal samples that have a spiral-staircase structure. The team's result is reported in the March 20 edition of the journal Nature.

    Neutrons paint atomic portrait of prototypical cell signaling enzyme

    Neutrons paint atomic portrait of prototypical cell signaling enzyme

    Direct observations of the structure and catalytic mechanism of a prototypical kinase enzyme--protein kinase A or PKA--will provide researchers and drug developers with significantly enhanced abilities to understand and treat fatal diseases and neurological disorders such as cancer, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. The discovery was made by an international team of researchers using macromolecular neutron crystallography at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France.

    Speeding the development of fusion power to create unlimited energy on Earth

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    An atomic view of how toxic uranium binds to iron minerals in the environment enables better predictions of its behavior.


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    PPPL's Young Women's Conference Offers Girls Fun and Inspiration in STEM Fields

    PPPL's Young Women's Conference Offers Girls Fun and Inspiration in STEM Fields

    PPPL's Young Women's Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics on Friday, March 22, at Princeton University, seeks to change the statistics that show women still lag far behind men in the STEM fields. The conference offers 7th to 10th-grade girls hands-on science activities, exciting experiments, and talks and a keynote speech by early-career female scientists.

    U.S. Department of Energy and Intel to deliver first exascale supercomputer

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    PPPL physicist receives funding to research improvements to unique fusion device

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    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory physicist Sam Cohen will receive $700,000 in the form of a subcontract from a $1.25 million award from the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) to upgrade and operate his Princeton Field Reversed Configuration device, the PFRC-2. The data produced could allow the design of future devices that might one day be used as a portable generator.

    DOE extends University PPPL contract

    DOE extends University PPPL contract

    The DOE has extended until 2022 its contract with Princeton University to manage the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, which is dedicated to enabling the scientific breakthroughs required to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source.

    Fermilab, international partners break ground on new state-of-the-art particle accelerator

    Fermilab, international partners break ground on new state-of-the-art particle accelerator

    With a ceremony held on March 15, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come.

    Argonne's Ali Erdemir elected to National Academy of Engineering for pivotal discoveries in tribology

    Argonne's Ali Erdemir elected to National Academy of Engineering for pivotal discoveries in tribology

    Distinguished Fellow Ali Erdemir from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has been elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), one of the highest professional distinctions accorded to engineers.

    Department of Energy to Provide $30 Million for Fusion Research on International Facilities

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a plan to provide $30 million for experimental research on magnetic fusion energy science at international fusion facilities known as tokamaks.

    HPC4Manufacturing Program names four awardees for latest round of DOE funding

    HPC4Manufacturing Program names four awardees for latest round of DOE funding

    The High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program (HPC4Mfg) today announced the recipients of $1.2 million in federal funding for four public/private projects aimed at solving key manufacturing challenges in steelmaking and aluminum production through supercomputing.

    DOE Announces $100 Million in Small Business Innovation and Technology Funding

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs issued its FY 2019 Phase II Release 2 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) with approximately $100 million in available funding.

    SURA Releases Jefferson Lab Economic Impact Study

    SURA Releases Jefferson Lab Economic Impact Study

    A new study commissioned by the Southeastern Universities Research Association on the local, state and nationwide impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has found that the laboratory generated $556.9 million in output and provided labor income for 3,448 workers nationwide last year.


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    Sampling Guts of Live Moose to Understand How They Break Down Biomass

    Sampling Guts of Live Moose to Understand How They Break Down Biomass

    First-of-a-kind study advances understanding of microbial and viral communities involved in biomass breakdown.

    Fitting a Square Peg in a Round Hole: The Surprising Structure of Uranium Bound in Hematite

    Fitting a Square Peg in a Round Hole: The Surprising Structure of Uranium Bound in Hematite

    An atomic view of how toxic uranium binds to iron minerals in the environment enables better predictions of its behavior.

    How Injected Microbes Persist in Hydraulically Fractured Shale

    How Injected Microbes Persist in Hydraulically Fractured Shale

    Scientists reveal the importance of an amino acid that supplies energy and protection for microbial communities deep underground.

    Unique Interface and Unexpected Behavior Help Explain How Heavy Metals Act

    Unique Interface and Unexpected Behavior Help Explain How Heavy Metals Act

    Three types of water molecules form around a platinum-based ion, offering insights for waste processing and metal refining.

    To Grow or Not to Grow? That Is the Question for Plants

    To Grow or Not to Grow? That Is the Question for Plants

    Scientists show metabolic tradeoffs result from a specific change to the grow-defend balance.

    Forming the Ion that Made the Universe

    Forming the Ion that Made the Universe

    Research offers details on the chemistry of trihydrogen ion.

    Water: Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the Way

    Water: Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the Way

    Elegant theory shows how water helps separate ions involved in material synthesis and manufacturing.

    Seeing Coherent Patterns at the Microscopic Scale

    Seeing Coherent Patterns at the Microscopic Scale

    Review highlights insights into coherence, which could help overcome roadblocks in next-generation energy systems.

    A Simplified Way to Predict the Function of Microbial Communities

    A Simplified Way to Predict the Function of Microbial Communities

    A pioneering study offers an easier approach to study how microbes work and could help scientists advance models of the cycling of elements and nutrients in frequently flooded soils.

    Squeezed Quantum Dots Produce More Stable Light

    Squeezed Quantum Dots Produce More Stable Light

    Exploiting a strain-engineering approach could provide nanoscale light sources with a nonfluctuating emission wavelength for use in sensors, quantum communication, and imaging.


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