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    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    When heated to just above room temperature, the electrical conductivity of vanadium dioxide abruptly increases by a factor of 10,000. Unusually large lattice vibrations, which are the oscillations of atoms about their equilibrium positions, stabilize this highly conductive metallic phase.

    Microbe Produces Ethanol From Switchgrass Without Pretreatment

    Microbe Produces Ethanol From Switchgrass Without Pretreatment

    Scientists engineered a strain of a consolidated bioprocessing bacterium that breaks down biomass without pretreatment, producing ethanol and demonstrating the successful conversion of switchgrass cellulosic biomass.

    Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Tropical monsoons in Indonesia and floods in the United States are both provoked by the Madden-Julian Oscillation, yet, despite its importance, global models often struggle to simulate it accurately. Scientists showed that MJO simulations are most sensitive to lower level heating in the atmosphere.

    Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common Vocabulary

    Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common Vocabulary

    Some microorganisms found in nature and not grown in the laboratory reinterpret the instructions coded into their DNA. Short segments of DNA that signal other organisms to stop adding building blocks or amino acids to a protein are instead interpreted as "add another amino acid."

    Optimizing Atomic Neighborhoods for Speedier Chemical Reactions

    Optimizing Atomic Neighborhoods for Speedier Chemical Reactions

    Scientists discovered that for palladium-nickel catalysts, certain surface characteristics, measured at the atomic level, sped the creation of carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide.

    Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels

    Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels

    For the first time, carbon nanotubes were spontaneously inserted into natural and synthetic cell membranes to form pores that mimic biological channels. The pores replicate the major functions of protein-based biological channels.

    Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance

    Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance

    Scientists built a highly active and durable class of electrocatalysts by exploiting the structural evolution of solid platinum-nickel nanocrystals. The novel material enhanced catalytic activity for splitting oxygen, a reaction vital to fuel cells and potentially other uses.

    ESnet Weathers the Flood of Big Data in Climate Research

    ESnet Weathers the Flood of Big Data in Climate Research

    The Energy Sciences Network is the Internet connection you wish you had - and more.

    Reaping Radioisotopes

    Reaping Radioisotopes

    Researchers designed a way to harvest several long-lived radioisotopes; such harvesting could supply isotopes for which there is limited or no other source.

    Earthworms Stabilize Soil Carbon at Sites Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Earthworms Stabilize Soil Carbon at Sites Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Often overlooked, earthworms actually play a key role in Mother Nature's carbon sequestration process, according to findings in Soil Biology and Biochemistry.