Just like we orbit the sun and the moon orbits us, the Milky Way has satellite galaxies with their own satellites. Drawing from data on those galactic neighbors, a new model suggests the Milky Way should have an additional 100 or so very faint satellite galaxies awaiting discovery.
One strategy to make biofuels more competitive is to make plants do some of the work themselves. Scientists can engineer plants to produce valuable chemical compounds, or bioproducts, as they grow. Then the bioproducts can be extracted from the plant and the remaining plant material can be converted into fuel. But one important part of this strategy has remained unclear -- exactly how much of a particular bioproduct would plants need to make in order to make the process economically feasible?
Argonne researchers have invented a machine-learning based algorithm for quantitatively characterizing material microstructure in three dimensions and in real time. This algorithm applies to most structural materials of interest to industry.
Turning a brittle oxide into a flexible membrane and stretching it on a tiny apparatus flipped it from a conducting to an insulating state and changed its magnetic properties. The technique can be used to study and design a broad range of materials for use in things like sensors and detectors.
The first detailed model of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field that surrounds Mercury, findings that could lead to improved understanding of the stronger field around Earth.
Story Tips: Molding matter atom by atom and seeing inside uranium particles, from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Scientists studying high-Tc superconductors at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have definitive evidence for the existence of a state of matter known as a pair density wave--first predicted by theorists some 50 years ago. Their results show that this phase coexists with superconductivity in a well-known bismuth-based copper-oxide superconductor.
An international team of scientists has published a new study proposing an optimization methodology for designing climate-resilient energy systems and to help ensure that communities will be able to meet future energy needs given weather and climate variability. Their findings were recently published in Nature Energy.
Nuclear physicists from Argonne National Laboratory led an international physics experiment conducted at CERN that utilizes novel techniques developed at Argonne to study the nature and origin of heavy elements in the universe.
PPPL researchers find that jumbled magnetic fields in the core of fusion plasmas can cause the entire plasma discharge to suddenly collapse.
Researchers have discovered how two-dimensional nanoscale cages trap some noble gases. These cages can trap atoms of argon, krypton, and xenon at above freezing temperatures. Noble gases are hard to trap using other methods because they condense at temperatures far below freezing.
The Sun is a spinning ball of plasma that generates its own magnetic field. As the Sun spews out plasma, it generates solar wind that pulls the Sun's magnetic field along with it, twisting the magnetic field into what is called a Parker spiral. A recent experiment recreated this interaction at a small scale in the laboratory.
Understanding how a small, gas-phase molecule containing an actinide atom reacts with other molecules helps us understand the chemistry of heavy elements. This study identified an extreme in the chemical behavior of curium, which lies at the center of the actinide series on the periodic table.
A new study by scientists at Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, and the University of Michigan - published online this week in the journal Science - concludes that a possible dark matter-related explanation for a mysterious light signature in space is largely ruled out.
New research conducted in part at Brookhaven Laboratory may bring a whole new class of chemical elements into a materials science balancing act for designing alloys for aviation and other applications.
Loading single platinum atoms on titanium dioxide promotes the conversion of a plant derivative into a potential biofuel.
Researchers have created miniature lasers that are stable and work continuously at room temperature. The lasers use arrays of nanopillars with nanoparticles that can absorb two photons of light and emit them as a single photon with higher energy. They could have applications in quantum technologies, imaging, and other areas.
Scientists have designed a recyclable plastic called poly(diketoenamine)s, or PDKs. In contrast to many plastics, scientists can recover and free the monomers of PDK plastic from each other and additives by dunking it in a highly acidic solution. Manufacturers can then reassemble the plastic into a different shape, texture, and color without loss of performance or quality.
Scientists have developed a new artificial intelligence method that automates experiments by autonomously defining and conducting the next step of an experiment without input from human researchers. It works by creating a model that fits experimental data, then using that model as the starting point for continuously refining the model to fit with new data.
Researchers are finding new applications for radiation between microwaves and infrared light. This terahertz radiation could lead to new capabilities in imaging, communications, and other areas. To expand its use, researchers need switches that work in less than a thousandth of a second, have a high contrast between "off" and "on" states, and efficiently carry electrical charges. Researchers have developed a new metasurface that does all three.
Researchers were looking into a protein that tuberculosis bacteria need to thrive, but when they finally solved its structure, they discovered a gigantic cavity that could help shuttle a variety of molecules into TB bacteria.
Nearly all computer models of molecules and materials are based on density functional theory (DFT) approximations. Several methods exist for correcting self-interaction error in DFT approximations that work well for some chemical arrangements but not others. A new method removes self-interaction errors without hurting accuracy.
Heterostructures are semiconductors that have special optical and electronic properties. Researchers discovered a new way to make heterostructures that consist of a core of tin sulfide crystals wrapped in a tin disulfide shell, a structure with excellent light absorption and energy transfer properties.
Scientists have discovered a new method for creating hollow metallic nanostructures. They used advanced electron tomography to collect 3D images of the transition from gold nanocubes with sharp corners to gold-silver alloy nanowrappers with pores at their corners. The pores are large and regular enough to carry molecule or nanoscale-size particles.
Tokamaks use magnetic fields to control plasma "Magnetic islands" are unstable structures that form in these magnetic fields. Researchers discovered that firing frozen pellets of deuterium deep into the plasma caused the magnetic islands to shrink.