PPPL Scientists Challenge Conventional Understanding and Improve Predictions of the Bootstrap Current at the Edge of Fusion Plasmas
Article describes new finding of the composition of the bootstrap current at the edge of fusion plasmas.
Scientists have found that rain triggers the release of a mist of particles from wet soils into the air, a finding with consequences for how scientists model our planet's climate and future. The evidence comes in the form of tiny glassy spheres, less than one-hundredth the width of a human hair, discovered in the Great Plains.
Using data from the world's most powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, an international team of scientists has made a crucial advance in analyzing ultrafast motions of molecules. They developed a computational method that increases the accuracy of this analysis 300 times - to one femtosecond, which is a millionth of a billionth of a second.
A unique rapid-fire electron source--originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers--will help scientists at Berkeley Lab study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale.
Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.
A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, including a significant displacement of petroleum, a drop in greenhouse gases and a fuel cost savings of 7 cents per mile, according to a study recently completed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.
Hybrid batteries that charge faster than conventional ones could have significantly better electrical capacity and long-term stability when prepared with a gentle-sounding way of making electrodes. Called ion soft-landing, the high-precision technique resulted in electrodes that could store a third more energy and had twice the lifespan compared to those prepared by a conventional method, the researchers report today in Nature Communications.
The oceans hold more than four billion tons of uranium--enough to meet global energy needs for the next 10,000 years if only we could capture the element from seawater to fuel nuclear power plants. Major advances in this area have been published.
A research team has directly measured a spiral molecular arrangement formed by liquid crystals that could help unravel its mysteries and possibly improve the performance of electronic displays.
An unexpected discovery has led to a zinc-manganese oxide rechargeable battery that's as inexpensive as conventional car batteries, but has a much higher energy density.
Though cassava is easy to cultivate, it is particularly vulnerable to plant pathogens which can significantly reduce crop yields. With the help of genomics, researchers hope to apply advanced breeding strategies that can improve cassava's resistance to diseases and improve crop yields.
In a study led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, scientists synthesized a stack of atomically thin monolayers of two lattice-mismatched semiconductors and created an atomically thin solar cell.
Conditions in the vast universe can be quite extreme: Violent collisions scar the surfaces of planets. Nuclear reactions in bright stars generate tremendous amounts of energy. Gigantic explosions catapult matter far out into space. But how exactly do processes like these unfold? What do they tell us about the universe? To find out, researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory perform sophisticated experiments and computer simulations that recreate violent cosmic conditions on a small scale in the lab.
Princeton Graduate Student Imene Goumiri Creates Computer Program That Helps Stabilize Fusion Plasmas
This piece describes a new method for controlling plasma rotation to limit instabilities that can halt fusion reactions.
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964 -- a "Cooper pair density wave." The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors.
Many bacteria interact with their environment through hair-like structures known as pili, which attach to and help mediate infection of host organisms, among other things. Now a U.S.-Japanese research team, including scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, has discovered that certain bacteria prevalent in the human gut and mouth assemble their pili in a previously unknown way - information that could potentially open up new ways of fighting infection.
Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have discovered a topological metal, PtSn4 (platinum and tin), with a unique electronic structure that may someday lead to energy efficient computers with increased processor speeds and data storage.
A team with Argonne's Virtual Engine Research Institute and Fuels Initiative (VERIFI) announce that they have completed development of engineering simulation code and workflows that will allow as many as 10,000 engine simulations to be conducted simultaneously on the Mira supercomputer.
A research team by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing the first conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism.
Scientists combined the excellent light-harvesting properties of quantum dots with the tunable electrical conductivity of a layered tin disulfide semiconductor to produce a hybrid material that exhibited enhanced light-harvesting and energy transfer properties -- both in laboratory tests and when incorporated into electronic devices. The research paves the way for using these materials in optoelectronic applications such as energy-harvesting photovoltaics, light sensors, and light emitting diodes (LEDs).
Researchers used neutrons to uncover novel behavior in materials that holds promise for quantum computing. The findings provide evidence for long-sought phenomena in a two-dimensional magnet.
Scientists have found evidence that rising river waters deliver a feast of carbon to hungry microbes where water meets land, triggering increased activity and altering the flow of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Researchers hoping to design new materials for energy uses have developed a system to make synthetic polymers -- some would say plastics -- with the versatility of nature's own polymers, the ubiquitous proteins. Based on an inexpensive industrial chemical, these synthetic polymers might one day be used to create materials with functions as limitless as proteins, which are involved in every facet of life.
Researchers have found a potential path to further improve solar cell efficiency by understanding the competition among halogen atoms during the synthesis of sunlight-absorbing crystals.
Article describes successful test of liquid lithium limiter on China's EAST tokamak.