Scientists have found magnetic excitations in a metallic compound whose main source of magnetism is the orbital movement of its electrons. Their discovery challenges conventional wisdom that these excitations are only found in materials whose magnetism is dominated by the spin of its electrons.
A team led by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has reached another milestone in developing a promising technology for accelerating particles to high energies in short distances: They created a tiny tube of hot, ionized gas, or plasma, in which the particles remain tightly focused as they fly through it.
Researchers from Michigan State University are using Mira to perform large-scale 3-D simulations of the final moments of a supernova's life cycle. While the 3-D simulation approach is still in its infancy, early results indicate that the models are providing a clearer picture than ever before of the mechanisms that drive supernova explosions.
A team of researchers has successfully demonstrated a new method for producing a beam of polarized positrons, a method that could enable a wide range of applications and research, such as improved product manufacturing and polarized positron beams to power breakthrough scientific research.
Physicist Fatima Ebrahimi Conducts Computer Simulations That Indicate the Efficiency of an Innovative Fusion Start-Up Technique
Physicist Fatima Ebrahimi at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University has for the first time performed computer simulations indicating the efficiency of a start-up technique for doughnut-shaped fusion machines known as tokamaks. The simulations show that the technique, known as coaxial helicity injection (CHI), could also benefit tokamaks that use superconducting magnets.
A team of researchers at Argonne National Laboratory is using nanomaterials to get closer to one of the holy grails of building efficiency technologies: single pane windows with efficiency as good or better than multi-pane low emissions (Low-E) windows. The team recently received a $3.1 million award from DOE's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) to develop a technology that could help achieve that goal.
In most cases, a catalyst that's good at driving chemical reactions in one direction is bad at driving reactions in the opposite direction. However, a team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory has created the first high-performance, two-way oxide catalyst.
Over three years, a University of Guelph team has brought increasingly complex samples of edible fat to the APS for research. They are using the data from the APS USAXS facility to characterize the nanoscale structure of different kinds of edible fats and applying the data to a model that predicts the effect of processes like heating and mixing on fat structure. If food manufacturers understand the unique structures of different fat compositions, they can better mimic the desirable tastes and textures of unhealthy fats with healthier alternatives, potentially impacting diseases closely tied to diet.
Sensory perception lies at the heart of adaptation to changing conditions, and helps fungi to improve growth and recycle organic waste, and to know when and how to infect a plant or animal host. New results from a comparative fungal genome analysis conducted by a DOE JGI-led team shed light on the evolution of sensory perception in fungi.
A team of scientists working at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and led by Northern Illinois University physicist and Argonne materials scientist Zhili Xiao has created a new material, called "rewritable magnetic charge ice," that permits an unprecedented degree of control over local magnetic fields and could pave the way for new computing technologies.
A mathematical approach for studying local magnetic interactions has helped scientists understand the magnetic properties of a material with long-range magnetic order.
Massive amounts of data require infrastructure to manage and store the information in a manner than can be easily accessed for use. In a paper published May 16, 2016 in Trends in Microbiology, DOE Joint Genome Institute researchers call for the formation of a National Microbiome Data Center to efficiently manage the datasets accumulated globally.
Researchers have made the first microscopic movies of liquids getting vaporized by the world's brightest X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The new data could lead to better and novel experiments at X-ray lasers, whose extremely bright, fast flashes of light take atomic-level snapshots of some of nature's speediest processes.
A primer on 5 remediation methods scientists can use to pull contaminants out of soil and groundwater.
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron analysis to better understand a protein implicated in the replication of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. The enzyme, known as HIV-1 protease, is a key drug target for HIV and AIDS therapies. The multi-institutional team used neutron crystallography to uncover detailed interactions of hydrogen bonds at the enzyme's active site, revealing a pH-induced proton 'hopping' mechanism that guides its activity.
Increased water use in the rapidly growing oil industry in North Dakota's Bakken oil shale region, or play, is surprisingly due not only to oil well development but also to people, according to a recent study. Increased oil development in that region has attracted thousands of oilfield employees.
ORNL demonstrates a method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications.
Joining carbon fiber composites and aluminum for lightweight cars and other multi-material high-end products could become less expensive because of an ORNL method that harnesses a laser's power and precision.
Solar power could deliver $400 billion in environmental and public health benefits throughout the United States by 2050, according to a study from the U.S. Department of Energy's Berkeley Lab and National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Researchers have used computer modeling to design these liquid materials so that they retain a low viscosity after sponging up carbon dioxide, based on a surprise they found in their explorations. Although the chemists still have to test the predicted liquid in the lab, being able to predict viscosity will help researchers find and design cheaper, more efficient carbon capture materials, they report in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.
A group of researchers from the Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Akron discovered that a particular form of carbon coating not necessarily designed for wind turbines may indeed prove a boon to the wind industry--a serendipitous finding that was recently highlighted in the journal Tribology International.
By accelerating the formation of the oxygen-oxygen bond in water oxidation, newly developed ruthenium catalysts could drive the reaction needed to efficiently store solar energy in the chemical bonds of clean fuels.
A new astronomy facility, the Simons Observatory, is planned in Chile's Atacama Desert to boost ongoing studies of the evolution of the universe, from its earliest moments to today. The observatory will probe the subtle properties of the universe's first light, known as cosmic microwave background radiation.
Researchers found how substantial linear defects in a new semiconductor create entirely new properties. Some of these properties indicate the defects might even mediate superconducting states.
Scientists have devised a way to build a "quantum metamaterial"--an engineered material with exotic properties not found in nature--using ultracold atoms trapped in an artificial crystal composed of light. The theoretical work represents a step toward manipulating atoms to transmit information, perform complex simulations or function as powerful sensors.