Expert Directory


Rachel Ida Buff is an immigration historian and program coordinator at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM). She is available to discuss contemporary and historical immigrant populations in Wisconsin and across the United States. She can also speak to how the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals legislation impacts American higher education on a systemic and individual level and how universities, faculty and affected students are responding. Buff is available for radio, television and print interviews.
Her most recent book is “Against the Deportation Terror: Organizing for Immigrant Rights in the 20th Century” (Temple University Press, 2017). She is the editor of “Immigrant Rights in the Shadows of Citizenship” and the author of “Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945–1992.”

Exercise, pain, Fibromyalgia, Osteoarthritis, Pain Measurement

Board certified rheumatologist and a clinical scientist whose area of research is in both the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of persistent pain. Dr. Ang has been the primary investigator of three National Institute of Health (NIH)-funded clinical trials in fibromyalgia. He has approximately 25 publications in peer reviewed journals in arthritis and pain. Dr. Ang has served as an ad hoc reviewer for NIH, and also a reviewer of research abstracts for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). He is an active member of both the ACR and the American Pain Society.

Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Biotechnology, Business Consulting, Advertising, Market Research, Marketing Strategy, Political Marketing

Joined University of Maryland in 2005.

Henry C. Boyd is a Clinical Professor in the Marketing Department at the Robert H. Smith School of Business. He is also a managing director and principal at Ombudsman LLC, a diversified consultancy. He is licensed to practice law in Maryland, Wisconsin, and the U.S. District Court, Western District of Wisconsin. 

Boyd received his Ph.D. in Marketing from Duke University (with an emphasis in Consumer Behavior) and his J.D. in Intellectual Property from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. At the age of 24, he received his MBA in Marketing from the University of California at Berkeley. Prior to graduate study, he obtained his A.B. in Chemistry (with an emphasis in Biophysics) from Princeton University.

Boyd’s areas of expertise include biotechnology, consumer behavior, business consulting, pharmaceutical sales, advertising, and market research. His research has been published in Marketing Letters, Psychology & Marketing, and Journal of Advertising Research. He has served as an ad hoc reviewer for the Journal of Marketing Research. He has critiqued pedagogical approaches found in marketing textbooks for such leading publishing houses as CENGAGE, Prentice Hall, and Thomson South-Western.

Boyd’s opinions have appeared in The Washington Post, Baltimore Sun, Washington Times, Wisconsin State Journal, Capital Times, and Wausau Daily Herald. He has participated in live interviews on Maryland Public Television, CBS News (local affiliate WISC-TV Channel 3 News), NBC News (local affiliate WMTV Channel 15 News), and NEWS/TALK 1310 WIBA RADIO.

During the course of his academic career, Boyd has taught over 17,500 students the intricacies of marketing theory and practice. Outside of academe, he has worked as a summer associate at Heller Ehrman, a pharmaceutical rep at Merck, and an economic forecaster at IBM. He has consulted with several executive clients including the NFL, ExxonMobil, SAIC, Verizon, Stanley Black & Decker, and Ocean Tomo. At times, he has been called upon as an expert witness in legal proceedings. He has served on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Boyd resides in Fulton, MD with his wife, Isabel, and his daughter, Giselle.
Executive director of the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law and a visiting professor of Law at Georgetown Law. He is a co-director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center on National and Global Health Law. Cabrera has worked on projects with the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, among other organizations. He has studied and is interested in various health law-related fields, such as public health law, sexual and reproductive rights, health and human rights, global tobacco litigation and health systems law and policy. 

Cabrera can comment in English or Spanish on the actions of the WHO and International Health Regulations related to Ebola.

Maternal Fetal Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Obstetrics, preeclampsia (PE)

I practice obstetrics, specializing in maternal fetal medicine. This includes treatment of preeclampsia and other problems that can occur during pregnancy. I also treat women experiencing preterm labor and those who have a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes. 

Patient-centered care is important to me. In obstetrics, there can be gray areas in approaches to treatment. It is important that healthcare decisions be made as a team with the patient and family as key and essential parts of this team. 

Something many people don't know about me is that, during my career as a Navy physician, I was deployed and provided care in Haiti, Afghanistan and Central America. 

Media Relations, public affairs, Fundraising, Advocacy, household and commercial products

Steve Caldeira is President & CEO of the Household & Commercial Products Association whose members generate $180 billion in annual economic output and are responsible for 200,000 direct jobs. HCPA members manufacture, formulate, distribute and sell familiar and trusted household and commercial products that help consumers and workers to create cleaner, healthier and more sustainable environments. As President & CEO, Steve works closely with the HCPA Board of Directors to set and execute the strategic priorities of the association. Steve has more than three decades of legislative, regulatory, political, media relations, public affairs, fundraising, corporate and not-for-profit trade association experience.

Prior to joining HCPA, Steve was President & CEO of the International Franchise Association, where he was credited with growing revenue by over 70 percent, doubling funding for its political action committee to nearly $1.3 million, increasing the organization’s media profile, and vastly expanding its advocacy footprint at all levels of government.

Steve previously served as Executive Vice President of Global Communications & Chief Public Affairs Officer for Dunkin’ Brands, Inc., the parent company of Dunkin’ Donuts and Baskin-Robbins. Steve has also held various executive positions including

Vice President of Industry Relations for PepsiCo, Inc., Managing Director in the U.S. Public Affairs Practice at Burson-Marsteller, Senior Vice President of Communications and Marketing at the National Restaurant Association, Senior Manager of Political Affairs (Northeast Division) for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and Political Director to former U.S. Senator Alfonse D’Amato (R-NY).

Steve also serves on numerous not-for-profit boards and councils including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce “Trade Association Committee of 100”, the U.S. Chamber’s Public Affairs Committee and is also on the Advisory Board of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. Steve is also a member of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) Council of Manufacturing Associations (CMA) Advisory Board, Board of Directors for the Canadian Consumer Specialty Products Association (CCSPA), The Bryce Harlow Foundation Board of Governors, Corporate Advisory Board of So Others Might Eat (SOME), Board of Directors of the American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) where he is currently Chair-elect, and Chair, of the ASAE Research Foundation, Board of Directors of the Boy Scouts of America Capital Area Council, National Board of Advisors for the Panetta Institute for Public Policy at California State University-Monterey Bay, and Board of Directors for the Alzheimer’s Association National Capital Area Chapter where he currently serves as the Immediate Past Chair. From 2003-2017, he served as Chair of The Emeril Lagasse Golf Classic to benefit the celebrity chef’s endowed scholarship fund at Johnson & Wales University which raised $7.1 million for culinary, hotel and hospitality-related scholarships. Steve is also a member of The Economic Club of Washington, DC.

Steve has been named a “Top Lobbyist” by The Hill multiple times, including 2019, in addition to being named a “Top Power & Influence Trade Association CEO” by CEO Update.

Steve graduated from Providence College in Providence, RI with a B.A. in Political Science and where he currently serves as a member of the National Board of Overseers (NBO). Steve was also awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Business Administration and Foodservice Management by Johnson & Wales University in 2007.

Domestic Violence, intimate partner abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, Homicide, intimate partner homicide, Health Outcomes, Research, Nurse, Johns Hopkins, Nursing, Pregnancies, Women's Health, Gun Control, Gun Control Laws, Abuse & Trauma, abuse preventio

Jacquelyn Campbell is a national leader in research and advocacy in the field of domestic violence or intimate partner violence (IPV). Her expertise is frequently sought by national and international policy makers in exploring IPV and its health effects on families and communities. 

Her most recent research in health sequelae has been foundational for the areas of the intersection of HIV and violence against women and how head injuries and strangulation from intimate partner violence can result in undiagnosed and untreated Traumatic Brain Injury. She has consistently advocated for addressing health inequities of marginalized women in this country and globally affected by experiences of violence.  

She has served as Principle Investigator on 14 federally funded collaborative research investigations through the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Justice, Department of Defense, the Department of Justice (Office of Violence Against Women), and Centers for Disease Control to examine intimate partner homicide and other forms of violence against women as well as interventions and policy initiatives to improve the justice and health care system response. This work has paved the way for a growing body of interdisciplinary knowledge about experiences of violence and health outcomes, risk assessment for lethal and near-lethal domestic violence, and coordinated system (justice, social services, and health) responses to address intimate partner violence.

Dr. Campbell has published more than 270 articles, 56 book chapters and seven books, in addition to developing the Danger Assessment, an instrument to assist abused women in accurately determining their level of danger. The Danger Assessment is also the basis of the Lethality Assessment Program (MNADV LAP) for first responders to assess risk of homicide of domestic violence survivors and connect those at high risk with domestic violence services. In collaboration with Dr. Nancy Glass, originator of myPlan, a decision aid for IPV survivors, she is leading an NIH-funded cultural adaptation of myPlan for immigrant and indigenous women.

Elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2000, Dr. Campbell also was the Institute of Medicine/American Academy of Nursing/American Nurses' Foundation Senior Scholar in Residence and was founding co-chair of the IOM Forum on the Prevention of Global Violence. Other honors include the Pathfinder Distinguished Researcher by the Friends of the National Institute of Health National Institute for Nursing Research, Outstanding Alumna and Distinguished Contributions to Nursing Science Awards, Duke University School of Nursing, the American Society of Criminology Vollmer Award, and being named one of the inaugural 17 Gilman Scholars at Johns Hopkins University. She is on the Board of Directors for Futures Without Violence, is an active member of the Johns Hopkins Women’s Health Research Group, and has served on the boards of the House of Ruth Battered Women's Shelter and four other shelters. She was a member of the congressionally appointed U.S. Department of Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence. 

counterfeit alcohol, Methanol Alcohol, Tainted Alcohol, Illicit Alcohol, Fake Alcohol, adulterated alcohol, illicit liquor, Methanol poisoning, Bootleg liquor, Counterfeit Liquor, tainted liquor, Drink Safe, Alcohol Poisoning


Hot cars, Water Safety, Drowning, distracted driving, Holiday toy safety

Beaches, lakes, and pools are great ways to beat the heat but there are precautions to take before reaching for that swimsuit, said Gabriella Cardone, MD, an emergency medicine pediatrician with McGovern Medical School at UTHealth and attending physician at Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital. “Taking the time to follow some basic precautions will keep you and your loved ones safe in the water all summer long,” Cardone said. Before engaging in aquatic activities, make sure everyone knows how to swim or has an approved life jacket. Water noodles, inner tubes, or water wings do not count. Tragically, there are approximately 3,536 fatal unintentional drownings in the U.S. every year, which is an average of 10 deaths a day, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Children should learn how to swim by age 4 and their parents should learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR in case of emergency,” Cardone said.

RNA Silencing, Virus-Host Interactions, Epigenetics

Jim Carrington has come a long way since first stepping into a research laboratory as an undergraduate at the University of California, Riverside.

Research in the Carrington lab focuses on RNA-mediated regulation and silencing of genomes, genes and viruses. This lab focuses on the biogenesis, functions, and evolution of small RNA-directed silencing pathways in multicellular eukaryotes. Small RNA-based silencing serves a regulatory mechanism during growth and development and in response to stress. It also functions as a transposon and repeat silencing mechanism, and as an antiviral response in plants and some animals. The Carrington lab uses a combination of genetics, genomics, computation and other approaches to address fundamental mechanistic problems using model systems, but it also seeks to develop tools and approaches that have practical relevance in crop plants. The lab is particularly interested in the underlying mechanisms, including small RNA mechanisms, that govern plant-virus and plant-microbe interactions.

HTS studies in a variety of plants and other organisms have revealed the diversity of ancient and recently evolved miRNA genes, and vast arrays of siRNAs from long dsRNA. The systematic analysis of mutants with defects in miRNA and siRNA function revealed several distinct biogenesis pathways for each class, and target RNAs that are regulated by small RNA families. Distinct small RNA biogenesis and effector components are involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing systems in plants. They have explored biogenesis, effector and specificity mechanisms of miRNA, trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), antiviral siRNA, and other small RNA classes using Arabidopsis thaliana.

Animal Studies, Sustainability, Biology, Climate Change, Ecology, Agriculture, locusts, entromology

Arianne Cease is a sustainability scientist who works to understand how human-plant-insect interactions affect the sustainability of agricultural systems.

A major focus is on locust plagues and phenotypic plasticity in response to agricultural practices in China, Australia, West Africa and South America. She investigates the interactions among human behavior, market forces, and ecological systems in situations in which human decisions to overstock and overgraze rangeland alter plant nutrient content, increasing the likelihood of locust outbreaks. A key goal of her research is to improve sustainable ecosystem management and rural livelihoods.

Cease is an assistant professor in the School of Sustainability and the School of Life Sciences. She is also director of ASU’s Global Locust Initiative.

Anees Chagpar, MD, MBA, MPH, FACS, FRCS(C)

Associate Professor; Director, Assistant Director

Yale Cancer Center

Breast Cancer, Yale Cancer Center, breast surgeon, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome breast cancer, Breast Neoplasms, Global affairs, Healthcare

Anees is the Director of The Breast Center, Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven, an Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, and the Assistant Director for Global Oncology at Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center. Born and

Sumit Chanda, Ph.D.

Director and Professor--Immunity and Pathogenesis Program

Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute

virologist, Coronavirus, covid 19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus treatment, Antiviral

Sumit Chanda, Ph.D., is a virologist at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute who is racing to find a treatment for COVID-19. 

His team is testing 13,000 compounds for effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2, leveraging a library created with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation called the ReFRAME drug repurposing collection. All of the drugs tested are already approved by the FDA for another disease or have been tested extensively for human safety. 
Prior to the outbreak, Chanda’s lab was advancing broad-spectrum antivirals—medicines that would work against many viruses, not just one—that could protect us against a pandemic. 

Jenny Chang, M.D.

Director, Houston Methodist Cancer Center

Houston Methodist


Chang's work focuses on the therapy resistance of cancer stem cells, which has led to several publications and international presentations. Her clinical research aims to evaluate novel biologic agents in breast cancer patients. Chang has worked in the field of tumor-initiating cells for more than 10 years. After her discovery that tumor-initiating cells are chemo-resistant, and that targeting the EGFR/HER2 pathway can decrease this subpopulation, Chang played a key role in demonstrating some of the limitations and mechanisms of tumor-initiating cells. Her work is now focused on the mechanisms that regulate TICs, as well as initiating and planning clinical trials that target this critical tumor initiating subpopulation. She is also interested in characterizing the cross-talk between these different pathways that may lead to mechanisms of resistance, and has identified some of the chief regulatory pathways involved in TIC self-renewal. She is a world-renown clinical investigator, credited as one of the first to describe intrinsic chemo-resistance of tumor-initiating cells.

Bernard W. Chang, Plastic Surgery

Director, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery at Mercy

Mercy Medical Center

Plastic Surgery, Reconstructive Surgery, Surgery, Breast Reconstruction Surgery, Cosmetic Surgery

Bernard (Bernie) W. Chang, M.D., Director of Baltimore’s Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery at Mercy, also leads The Breast Reconstruction and Restoration Center at Mercy. Dr. Bernie Chang is Board Certified in Plastic Surgery and General Surgery. He pioneered and advanced surgical treatment options like DIEP flap surgery for breast reconstruction. With a skilled and highly specialized team of doctors, Mercy's Plastic Surgery and Breast Reconstruction Centers are known as one of the Mid-Atlantic’s best in breast reconstruction and restoration, cosmetic medicine and plastic surgery. 

As the Assistant Director of The Hoffberger Breast Center at Mercy in Baltimore, Dr. Bernie Chang works closely with the Breast Center doctors to provide seamless care for those women who choose immediate breast reconstruction after breast surgery. The industry-leading expertise of Dr. Chang and the renowned reputation of the physicians of The Breast Center result in choices that women may not find elsewhere.

With more than 20 years of medical experience, Dr. Chang offers women peace of mind in breast reconstruction and restoration. His quiet thoughtfulness and attention to the needs of his patients provide a calming touch that helps each woman focus on her treatment options and recovery. His expertise is in helping women reclaim their feminine form and personal self-esteem after a diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. Women say they have regained their physical and emotional balance in the care of Dr. Chang.

Dr. Chang has performed DIEP flap breast reconstruction surgery for decades and his leadership is widely known. DIEP flap breast reconstruction surgery is one of the most widely performed breast shaping options for women. Dr. Chang is also skilled in other microsurgical flap procedures including:

DIEP flap
SGAP flap & Bilateral SGAP Flap
IGAP flap
TUG flap
Latissimus flap
Dr. Bernie Chang’s surgical expertise attracts surgical fellows from across the nation to train in the renowned Fellowship Program at Mercy in breast reconstruction and surgical flap treatment options.

Michael L. Chang, M.D.

Assistant Professor Of Pediatrics Director Of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship For McGovern Medical School And Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Process Improvement, Healthcare Quality, Patient Safety

Dr. Michael L. Chang is a pediatric infectious disease specialist in Houston, Texas, and is affiliated with multiple hospitals in the area. He has been in practice for 11-20 years. His specialty is Pediatric infectious disease specialists who treat children with a broad array of diseases caused by germs, viruses, and fungi, ranging from flu to hospital-acquired infections to pneumonia.

Dr. Chang’s professional interests include Antimicrobial stewardship which involves studying and promoting the appropriate, optimal and judicious use of antibiotics for pediatric patients and Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

Linda Charmaraman, Ph.D.

Senior Research Scientist; Director, Youth, Media & Wellbeing Research Lab

Wellesley College, Wellesley Centers for Women

teen social media use, youth development , Cyberbullying, Gaming, social media and anxiety, Social Media

Linda Charmaraman, Ph.D., is a senior research scientist at the Wellesley Centers for Women and project director of the Youth, Media & Wellbeing Research Lab. She conducts research funded by a 3-year National Institutes of Health grant to follow middle school students and their parents longitudinally in order to determine longer-term health and wellbeing effects due to early smartphone use, social media use, and gaming. One of the goals of her project is not only to prevent negative health effects of social media use but also to empower youth to use social media to increase connections with other people by giving and receiving social and emotional support through social media and finding ways to be more civically engaged.

Charmaraman has conducted research and evaluation on projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, Department of Education, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, William T. Grant Foundation, Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts, Kellogg Foundation, Schott Foundation for Public Education, United Way, Borghesani Community Foundation, and AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts.

Charmaraman was a Visiting Assistant Professor in Asian American Psychology at Wellesley College and has guest lectured at Boston College and Northeastern University. Mentoring undergraduate and graduate students has always been a passion of hers, evidenced by her dedication to training, collaborating, presenting, and publishing academic papers with students from multiple institutions. Throughout her doctoral program, she was the coordinator of graduate student diversity recruitment in her department and an appointed student delegate of the Equity Committee.

Jennifer A. Chatman, Ph.D.

Paul J. Cortese Distinguished Professor of Management

University of California, Berkeley Haas School of Business

Organizational Culture, Firm Performance, Norms in Diverse Groups, Leadership and the Impact of Leader Attributes, Organizational Management

Jennifer Chatman is a world-renowned researcher, teacher & consultant on leveraging organizational culture for firm performance and leading high-performance teams.

Chatman is the Paul J. Cortese Distinguished Professor of Management and a faculty member in the Management of Organizations (MORS) Group at Berkeley Haas. In her research, teaching, and consulting work, she focuses on how organizations can leverage culture for strategic success and how diverse teams can optimize performance. Her award-winning research has shown, for example, how emphasizing innovation in the context of a strong culture increases firms’ financial success, how narcissistic leaders create organizational cultures lower in collaboration and integrity, and how norms to cooperate can cause members to blur differences among them, even if those differences are useful for group performance—suggesting that collaboration should be calibrated in diverse teams.

Chatman is the Co-Director of the Berkeley Culture Initiative, the Assistant Dean for Learning Strategies at the Haas School of Business, an Editor for the journal Research in Organizational Behavior, and runs the Leading High Performance Cultures executive education program. She has served in many other leadership roles at Haas and UC Berkeley over the years. Chatman earned her PhD at Berkeley Haas, and her BA in Psychology from UC Berkeley.

Mohamad Cherry MD, MD

Medical Director, Hematology, Atlantic Health System Cancer Care

Atlantic Health System

Hematology, Medical Oncology, Clinical Trials, hematologic malignancies, new therapeutics for relapsed and refractory blood cancers, Epigenetics

Triple board-certified in internal medicine, hematology and medical oncology, Dr. Mohamad Cherry is medical director of Hematology at Atlantic Health System Cancer Care. He joined Atlantic Hematology Oncology from the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center's Stephenson Cancer Center, bringing years of clinical knowledge and expertise.

With specialty training from some of the nation's most skilled clinicians, Dr. Cherry attained some of his clinical training at the leukemia department at MD Anderson and his fellowship in hematology/oncology from the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center's Stephenson Cancer Center. He performed two residencies - an internal medicine residency at Staten Island University Hospital and a laboratory medicine residency at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in Lebanon. Previously, Dr. Cherry attained his medical degree at Lebanese University and performed his internship at Sacre Coeur Hospital-Lebanese University. He also earned a master of science degree in clinical and translational research from University of Oklahoma College of Public Health.

Dr. Cherry remains on staff as clinical associate professor of hematology/oncology at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center's Stephenson Cancer Center. He is also the director of its hematology/oncology fellowship program and co-chairs the Academy of Teaching Scholars Faculty Development, Education and Mentoring Committee. Other administrative roles include co-chair of the leukemia working group at the Sarah Cannon Research Institute Blood Cancer Consortium.

As a principal investigator of multiple clinical trials, Dr. Cherry has performed groundbreaking research in niche areas that include epigenetics and development of new therapeutics in relapsed and refractory blood cancers. He has developed teaching materials and book chapters, and has lectured both nationally and internationally.

Dr. Cherry continues to serves as a mentor and an advisor to fellows, residents and medical students. He contributes to continuing education, public health, and professional development, and has won awards and funding for both his research and his clinical pursuits.

Henry Chesbrough, PhD

Faculty Director, Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation | Adjunct Professor | Mike and Carol Meyer Fellow

University of California, Berkeley Haas School of Business

technology management, Innovation Strategy, Corporate Innovation, Open Innovation, Business Development, Managing Intellectual Property, Industry Evolution

Henry Chesbrough, who coined the term “open innovation,” is faculty director of the Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation at Berkeley Haas. His research focuses on technology management and innovation strategy. He also teaches at Esade Business School at Spain’s University Ramon Llull. He has been an adjunct professor at the Harvard Business School and previously served as product manager and vice president of marketing at Quantum Corporation, a manufacturer of data storage devices and systems. He earned a BA in economics from Yale University, an MBA from Stanford University, and a PhD in business administration from Berkeley Haas.

Open innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external and internal ideas and paths to market to advance their technology. The central idea behind open innovation is that—in a world of widely distributed knowledge where the boundaries between a firm and its environment have become more permeable—companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research but should instead buy or license processes or inventions from other companies. In addition, internal inventions not being used in a firm’s business should be taken outside the company (e.g., through licensing, joint ventures, spin-offs).