Energy-Efficient Accelerator Was 50 Years in the Making

With the introduction of CBETA, the Cornell-Brookhaven ERL Test Accelerator, Cornell University and Brookhaven National Laboratory scientists are following up on the concept of energy-recovering particle accelerators first introduced by physicist Maury Tigner at Cornell more than 50 years ago.

Neutrino Project to Fuel Particle Physics Research

Over the next decade, 800,000 tons of rock will be excavated from the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, to accommodate a particle detector filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon cooled to -300 degrees Fahrenheit to study neutrinos beamed from Fermilab in Illinois. It's called the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

Pulses of Electrons Manipulate Nanomagnets and Store Information

Skyrmions are a kind of nanomagnet, comprised of a spin-correlated ensemble of electrons acting as a topological magnet on certain microscopic surfaces. The precise properties, like spin orientation, of such nanomagnets can store information. But how might you go about moving or manipulating these nanomagnets at will to store the data you want? New research demonstrates such read/write ability using bursts of electrons, encoding topological energy structures robustly enough for potential data storage applications. The researchers report their work this week in Applied Physics Letters.

NASA's Hubble Sees Martian Moon Orbiting the Red Planet

While photographing Mars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured a cameo appearance of the tiny moon Phobos on its trek around the Red Planet. Hubble took 13 separate exposures over 22 minutes to create a time-lapse video showing the moon's orbital path.

Neutrino Research Takes Giant Leap Forward

In a unique groundbreaking ceremony July 21 at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, S.D., an international group of dignitaries, scientists and engineers will mark the start of construction of a massive experiment that could change our understanding of the universe.

Gu and Paranthaman Named ORNL Corporate Fellows

Researchers Baohua Gu and Parans Paranthaman have been named Corporate Fellows of the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Simulation Reveals Universal Signature of Chaos in Ultracold Reactions

Researchers have performed the first ever quantum-mechanical simulation of the benchmark ultracold chemical reaction between potassium-rubidium and a potassium atom, opening the door to new controlled chemistry experiments.

Robotics-Based Study Provides Insight Into Predator-Prey Interactions

A research team led by New York University professor Maurizio Porfiri put forth a robotics-based study to control information flow in predator-prey interactions, as well as test the validity of transfer entropy when attempting to understand causal influences of the system. They report their findings this week in the journal Chaos, from AIP Publishing.

New Executive Board Member Elected at Council of Undergraduate Research

Mark D. Marshall (Amherst College) Elected as Secretary to the Council on Undergraduate Research's Executive Board

Report: Compact, Precise Beam Could Aid in Nuclear Security

A Berkeley Lab-led report highlights a new, compact technique for producing beams with precisely controlled energy and direction that could "see" through thick steel and concrete to more easily detect and identify concealed or smuggled nuclear materials for national security and other applications.

Lighting Up the Study of Low-Density Materials

Sandia National Laboratories studies myriads of low-density materials, from laminate layers in airplane wings to foams and epoxies that cushion parts. So Sandia borrowed and refined a technique being studied by the medical field, X-ray phase contrast imaging, to look inside the softer side of things without taking them apart.

Machine Learning Technique Offers Insight Into Plasma Behavior

A paper by graduate student Matthew Parsons describes the application of machine learning to avoiding plasma disruptions, which will be crucial to ensuring the longevity of future large tokamaks.

Physicists Gain New Understanding of Quantum Cooling Process

University of Arkansas physicists define new limits in optomechanical cooling to better help understand the quantum state

Giant Charge Reversal Observed For the First Time

Charged surfaces submerged in an electrolyte solution can sometimes become oppositely charged. This nonintuitive phenomenon happens when excess counter ions adsorb to the surface. In certain situations, theory predicts that a highly charged surface not only changes sign, but can become more highly charged than the original surface. This is known as giant charge reversal, but remains controversial and has never been observed experimentally. Results reported this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics confirm giant charge reversal for a surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution.

Watching Neutrons Flow

Like water, neutrons seek their own level, and watching how they flow may teach us about how the chemical elements were made.

Scientists See Molecules 'Breathe' in Remarkable Detail

In a milestone for studying a class of chemical reactions relevant to novel solar cells and memory storage devices, an international team of researchers working at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory used an X-ray laser to watch "molecular breathing" - waves of subtle in-and-out motions of atoms - in real time and unprecedented detail.

Even Droplets Sometimes Take the Stairs

Sometimes, liquid drops don't drop. Instead, they climb. Using computer simulations, researchers have now shown how to induce droplets to climb stairs all by themselves. This stair-climbing behavior could be useful in everything from water treatment and new lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices, to biochemical processing and medical diagnostic tools. The researchers describe their findings this week in the journal Physics of Fluids.

Thinking Thin Brings New Layering and Thermal Abilities to the Semiconductor Industry

The concept of a simple technique to remove thin layers from otherwise thick, rigid semiconductor crystals has been actively explored for years. In a significant advance, a research group from IBM successfully applied their new "controlled spalling" layer transfer technique to gallium nitride (GaN) crystals, a prevalent semiconductor material, and created a pathway for producing many layers from a single substrate. They report their work in this week's Journal of Applied Physics.