With an estimated daily fuel demand of more than 5 million barrels per day, the global aviation sector is incredibly energy-intensive and almost entirely reliant on petroleum-based fuels. However, a new analysis by scientists at Berkeley Lab shows that sustainable plant-based bio-jet fuels could provide a competitive alternative to conventional fuels if current development and scale-up initiatives continue to push ahead successfully.
First-of-a-kind study advances understanding of microbial and viral communities involved in biomass breakdown.
A team of scientists including researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have identified the causes of degradation in a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, as well as possible remedies. Their findings, published on Mar. 7 in Advanced Functional Materials, could lead to the development of more affordable and better performing batteries for electric vehicles.
A human's health is shaped both by environmental factors and the body's interactions with the microbiome, particularly in the gut. Genome sequences are critical for characterizing individual microbes and understanding their functional roles. However, previous studies have estimated that only 50 percent of species in the gut microbiome have a sequenced genome, in part because many species have not yet been cultivated for study.
In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, scientists have found that the seemingly random arrangement of islands that form to begin new layers during crystal growth can actually be very similar from layer to layer. The discovery may help scientists better understand of some of the mechanisms behind defect formation, as well as develop techniques to synthesize new types of crystals.
New data from the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) add detail and complexity to an intriguing puzzle that scientists have been seeking to solve: how the building blocks that make up a proton contribute to its spin. The results reveal that different flavors of antiquarks contribute differently to spin--and in a way that's opposite to those flavors' relative abundance.
An atomic view of how toxic uranium binds to iron minerals in the environment enables better predictions of its behavior.
Scientists reveal the importance of an amino acid that supplies energy and protection for microbial communities deep underground.
Researchers at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a platform that uses living cells as "scaffolds" for self-assembled composite materials. The technology could enable self-healing materials and other advanced applications in bioelectronics, biosensing, and smart materials.
An international team of scientists led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory explored the concept of reversing time in a first-of-its-kind experiment, managing to return a computer briefly to the past. The results, published March 13 in the journal Scientific Reports, suggest new paths for exploring the backward flow of time in quantum systems and present new possibilities for quantum computer program testing and error correction.
A new lens on materials under extreme conditions allows researchers to watch shock waves travel through silicon
When silicon, an element abundant in the Earth's crust, is subjected to extreme heat and pressure, an initial "elastic" shock wave travels through the material, leaving it unchanged, followed by an "inelastic" shock wave that irreversibly transforms the structure of the material. Using a new technique, researchers were able to directly watch and image this process for the first time.
Scientists show metabolic tradeoffs result from a specific change to the grow-defend balance.
Findings from an international team of scientists show that twisted magnetic fields can evolve in only so many ways, with the plasma inside them following a general rule.
Scientists have found a new way to use some of the world's most powerful X-rays to watch how atoms move at ultrafast speeds within a single atomic sheet.
An international collaboration including scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory solved a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected based on the beta decays of free neutrons. The findings, published in Nature Physics, fill a longstanding gap in physicists' understanding of beta decay, an important process stars use to create heavier elements, and emphasize the need to include subtle effects--or more realistic physics--when predicting certain nuclear processes.
New research from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory shows how the long-horned passalid beetle has a hardy digestive tract with microbes to thank for turning its woody diet into energy, food for its young, and nutrients for forest growth. These insights into how the beetle and its distinct microbiome have co-evolved provide a roadmap for the production of affordable, nature-derived fuels and bioproducts.
Using a never-before-seen technique, scientists have found a new way to use some of the world's most powerful X-rays to uncover how atoms move in a single atomic sheet in real time, opening up new possibilities for probing two-dimensional materials.
Research offers details on the chemistry of trihydrogen ion.
A team led by scientists at Berkeley Lab has learned how natural nanoscale defects can enhance the properties of tungsten disulfide, a 2D material.
Elegant theory shows how water helps separate ions involved in material synthesis and manufacturing.
A team led by DOE's Berkeley Lab has developed a method that could turn ordinary semiconducting materials into quantum machines - devices marked by extraordinary electronic behavior that could help to revolutionize a number of industries aiming for energy-efficient electronic systems.
In a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, scientists placed small iron oxide particles in an acidic solution, causing a reaction at the surface as iron atoms oxidized. As the reaction progressed, the researchers observed strain that built up and penetrated inside the mineral particle.
When you hear about the biological processes that influence climate and the environment, such as carbon fixation or nitrogen recycling, it's easy to think of them as abstract and incomprehensibly large-scale phenomena. Yet parts of these planet-wide processes are actually driven by the tangible actions of organisms at every scale of life, beginning at the smallest: the microorganisms living in the air, soil, and water. And now Berkeley Lab researchers have made it easier than ever to study these microbial communities by creating an optimized DNA analysis technique.
Review highlights insights into coherence, which could help overcome roadblocks in next-generation energy systems.
A pioneering study offers an easier approach to study how microbes work and could help scientists advance models of the cycling of elements and nutrients in frequently flooded soils.