For the first time, researchers have shown that momentum-hogging protons can exist in nuclei heavier than carbon.
Extremely small batteries built inside nanopores show that properly scaled structures can use the full theoretical capacity of the charge storage material. The batteries are part of assessing the basics of ion and electron transport in nanostructures for energy storage.
First identified more than 50 years ago, the sub-atomic particle called Lambda(1405) was routinely seen in experiments, yet two of its key characteristics were too difficult to measure. For the first time, scientists measured these descriptors: intrinsic angular momentum and parity.
Scientists built the most complete functional mapping of an entire family of cellulose-degrading enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family, to date.
For the first time, germanium nanowires have been deposited on indium tin oxide substrate by a simple, one-step process called electrodeposition. The nanowires produced by this method have outstanding electronic properties and can be used as high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the nanowires were previously too expensive and difficult to produce. This process may resolve the cost issue.
A new semiconducting material that is only three atomic layers thick exhibits electronic properties beyond traditional semiconductors. Two nano-engineered configurations of the material have shown an enhanced response to light, possibly leading to new modes of solar energy conversion and associated devices.
Led by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Lab, a team applied sophisticated mathematical solutions to fine tune water and energy exchange parameters, numerical stand-ins for complex processes, to more accurately simulate water and energy fluxes in an important model under different conditions.
Early schemes to model the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and their impact on sea levels failed to accurately account for changes caused by snowfall and snow melt. These changes depend on ice sheet elevation and region. Researchers developed a new method that includes the effects of elevation and region.
The amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from isoprene released by trees as well as the SOA volatility are more accurately tied to interactions with electron-rich, carbon-based chemicals, known as organic peroxy radicals, that compete with nitrogen oxides in reactions.
Whether inside algae turning biomass to fuels or human cells reacting to radiation exposure, proteins change their shape via atomic motions to perform a specific task. Scientists determined three classes of atomic motion, helping enable discoveries related to biobased or bio-inspired materials for energy production and use.
When heated to just above room temperature, the electrical conductivity of vanadium dioxide abruptly increases by a factor of 10,000. Unusually large lattice vibrations, which are the oscillations of atoms about their equilibrium positions, stabilize this highly conductive metallic phase.
Scientists engineered a strain of a consolidated bioprocessing bacterium that breaks down biomass without pretreatment, producing ethanol and demonstrating the successful conversion of switchgrass cellulosic biomass.
Tropical monsoons in Indonesia and floods in the United States are both provoked by the Madden-Julian Oscillation, yet, despite its importance, global models often struggle to simulate it accurately. Scientists showed that MJO simulations are most sensitive to lower level heating in the atmosphere.
Some microorganisms found in nature and not grown in the laboratory reinterpret the instructions coded into their DNA. Short segments of DNA that signal other organisms to stop adding building blocks or amino acids to a protein are instead interpreted as "add another amino acid."
Scientists discovered that for palladium-nickel catalysts, certain surface characteristics, measured at the atomic level, sped the creation of carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide.
For the first time, carbon nanotubes were spontaneously inserted into natural and synthetic cell membranes to form pores that mimic biological channels. The pores replicate the major functions of protein-based biological channels.
Scientists built a highly active and durable class of electrocatalysts by exploiting the structural evolution of solid platinum-nickel nanocrystals. The novel material enhanced catalytic activity for splitting oxygen, a reaction vital to fuel cells and potentially other uses.
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Researchers designed a way to harvest several long-lived radioisotopes; such harvesting could supply isotopes for which there is limited or no other source.
Often overlooked, earthworms actually play a key role in Mother Nature's carbon sequestration process, according to findings in Soil Biology and Biochemistry.