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    Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    Protons Hog the Momentum in Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    For the first time, researchers have shown that momentum-hogging protons can exist in nuclei heavier than carbon.

    Precision Nanobatteries by the Billions

    Precision Nanobatteries by the Billions

    Extremely small batteries built inside nanopores show that properly scaled structures can use the full theoretical capacity of the charge storage material. The batteries are part of assessing the basics of ion and electron transport in nanostructures for energy storage.

    Spin and Parity Measurements of the Elusive Lambda(1405) Particle

    Spin and Parity Measurements of the Elusive Lambda(1405) Particle

    First identified more than 50 years ago, the sub-atomic particle called Lambda(1405) was routinely seen in experiments, yet two of its key characteristics were too difficult to measure. For the first time, scientists measured these descriptors: intrinsic angular momentum and parity.

    Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family

    Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family

    Scientists built the most complete functional mapping of an entire family of cellulose-degrading enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family, to date.

    Highly Conductive Germanium Nanowires Made by a Simple, One-Step Process

    Highly Conductive Germanium Nanowires Made by a Simple, One-Step Process

    For the first time, germanium nanowires have been deposited on indium tin oxide substrate by a simple, one-step process called electrodeposition. The nanowires produced by this method have outstanding electronic properties and can be used as high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the nanowires were previously too expensive and difficult to produce. This process may resolve the cost issue.

    Connecting Three Atomic Layers Puts Semiconducting Science on Its Edge

    Connecting Three Atomic Layers Puts Semiconducting Science on Its Edge

    A new semiconducting material that is only three atomic layers thick exhibits electronic properties beyond traditional semiconductors. Two nano-engineered configurations of the material have shown an enhanced response to light, possibly leading to new modes of solar energy conversion and associated devices.

    New Mathematical Method Enhances Hydrology Simulations

    New Mathematical Method Enhances Hydrology Simulations

    Led by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Lab, a team applied sophisticated mathematical solutions to fine tune water and energy exchange parameters, numerical stand-ins for complex processes, to more accurately simulate water and energy fluxes in an important model under different conditions.

    New Method Relates Greenland Ice Sheet Changes to Sea-Level Rise

    New Method Relates Greenland Ice Sheet Changes to Sea-Level Rise

    Early schemes to model the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and their impact on sea levels failed to accurately account for changes caused by snowfall and snow melt. These changes depend on ice sheet elevation and region. Researchers developed a new method that includes the effects of elevation and region.

    Competition Not Concentration Matters when Forming Cloud-Influencing Aerosols

    Competition Not Concentration Matters when Forming Cloud-Influencing Aerosols

    The amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from isoprene released by trees as well as the SOA volatility are more accurately tied to interactions with electron-rich, carbon-based chemicals, known as organic peroxy radicals, that compete with nitrogen oxides in reactions.

    Deciphering Distinct Atomic Motions in Proteins with Dynamic Neutron Scattering

    Deciphering Distinct Atomic Motions in Proteins with Dynamic Neutron Scattering

    Whether inside algae turning biomass to fuels or human cells reacting to radiation exposure, proteins change their shape via atomic motions to perform a specific task. Scientists determined three classes of atomic motion, helping enable discoveries related to biobased or bio-inspired materials for energy production and use.

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    When heated to just above room temperature, the electrical conductivity of vanadium dioxide abruptly increases by a factor of 10,000. Unusually large lattice vibrations, which are the oscillations of atoms about their equilibrium positions, stabilize this highly conductive metallic phase.

    Microbe Produces Ethanol From Switchgrass Without Pretreatment

    Microbe Produces Ethanol From Switchgrass Without Pretreatment

    Scientists engineered a strain of a consolidated bioprocessing bacterium that breaks down biomass without pretreatment, producing ethanol and demonstrating the successful conversion of switchgrass cellulosic biomass.

    Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Heat's Role in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Tropical monsoons in Indonesia and floods in the United States are both provoked by the Madden-Julian Oscillation, yet, despite its importance, global models often struggle to simulate it accurately. Scientists showed that MJO simulations are most sensitive to lower level heating in the atmosphere.

    Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common Vocabulary

    Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common Vocabulary

    Some microorganisms found in nature and not grown in the laboratory reinterpret the instructions coded into their DNA. Short segments of DNA that signal other organisms to stop adding building blocks or amino acids to a protein are instead interpreted as "add another amino acid."

    Optimizing Atomic Neighborhoods for Speedier Chemical Reactions

    Optimizing Atomic Neighborhoods for Speedier Chemical Reactions

    Scientists discovered that for palladium-nickel catalysts, certain surface characteristics, measured at the atomic level, sped the creation of carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide.

    Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels

    Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels

    For the first time, carbon nanotubes were spontaneously inserted into natural and synthetic cell membranes to form pores that mimic biological channels. The pores replicate the major functions of protein-based biological channels.

    Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance

    Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance

    Scientists built a highly active and durable class of electrocatalysts by exploiting the structural evolution of solid platinum-nickel nanocrystals. The novel material enhanced catalytic activity for splitting oxygen, a reaction vital to fuel cells and potentially other uses.

    ESnet Weathers the Flood of Big Data in Climate Research

    ESnet Weathers the Flood of Big Data in Climate Research

    The Energy Sciences Network is the Internet connection you wish you had - and more.

    Reaping Radioisotopes

    Reaping Radioisotopes

    Researchers designed a way to harvest several long-lived radioisotopes; such harvesting could supply isotopes for which there is limited or no other source.

    Earthworms Stabilize Soil Carbon at Sites Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Earthworms Stabilize Soil Carbon at Sites Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Often overlooked, earthworms actually play a key role in Mother Nature's carbon sequestration process, according to findings in Soil Biology and Biochemistry.