A combination of experiments, including X-ray studies at Berkeley Lab, revealed new details about pesky deposits that can stop chemical reactions vital to fuel production and other processes.
PPPL and Princeton Researchers Propose an Explanation for the Mysterious Onset of a Universal Process
Article describes physics behind fast magnetic reconnection.
New technologies are giving researchers unprecedented opportunities to explore how the brain processes, utilizes, stores and retrieves information. But without a coherent strategy to analyze, manage and understand the data generated by these new tools, advancements in the field will be limited. Berkeley Lab researchers and their collaborators offer a plan to overcome these big data challenges.
An international team of scientists is providing new insight into the process by which plants use light to split water and create oxygen. In experiments led by Berkeley Lab scientists, ultrafast X-ray lasers were able to capture atomic-scale images of a protein complex found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria at room temperature.
New X-ray methods at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have captured the highest resolution room-temperature images of protein complex photosystem II, which allows scientists to closely watch how water is split during photosynthesis at the temperature at which it occurs naturally.
Researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute have invented a new way to probe the valence electrons of atoms deep inside a crystalline solid.
Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have conducted a detailed study of the albedo (reflectivity) effects of converting land to grow biofuel crops. Based on changes in albedo alone, their findings reveal that greenhouse gas emissions in land use change scenarios represent a net warming effect for ethanol made from miscanthus grass and switchgrass, but a net cooling effect for ethanol made from corn.
A team from the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) for Terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg, Germany has reverse engineered a biosynthetic pathway for more effective carbon fixation that is based on a new CO2-fixing enzyme that is nearly 20 times faster than the most prevalent enzyme in nature responsible for capturing CO2 in plants by using sunlight as energy.
Supercomputer simulations at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have played a key role in discovering a new class of drug candidates that hold promise to combat antibiotic resistance. In a study led by the University of Oklahoma with ORNL, the University of Tennessee and Saint Louis University, lab experiments were combined with supercomputer modeling to identify molecules that boost antibiotics' effect on disease-causing bacteria.
Berkeley Lab scientists have developed a way to use optical microscopy to map thin-film solar cells in 3-D as they absorb photons.
Scientists have used the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to make the first snapshots of a chemical interaction between two biomolecules - one that flips an RNA "switch" that regulates production of proteins, the workhorse molecules of life.
Powerful supercomputer simulations of high-energy collisions between atomic cores provide new insights about the complex structure of a superhot fluid called the quark-gluon plasma.
Berkeley Lab scientists have found a way to engineer the atomic-scale chemical properties of a water-splitting catalyst for integration with a solar cell, and the result is a big boost to the stability and efficiency of artificial photosynthesis. The research comes out of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP), established to develop a cost-effective method of turning sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel.
To understand the three-dimensional shape of a protein, scientists often rely on information from similar molecules. But sometimes, the protein is so unique that it's not possible to find a close relative.
Using the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, a DOE Office of Science User Facility located at ORNL, Tourassi's team applied deep learning to extract useful information from cancer pathology reports, a foundational element of cancer surveillance. Working with modest datasets, the team obtained preliminary findings that demonstrate deep learning's potential for cancer surveillance.
Physicists at PPPL have developed a diagnostic that provides crucial real-time information about the ultrahot plasma swirling within doughnut-shaped fusion machines known as tokamaks.
New findings suggest the rate at which CO2 is accumulating in the atmosphere has plateaued in recent years because Earth's vegetation is grabbing more carbon from the air than in previous decades.
Berkeley Lab scientists have, for the first time, achieved both lasing and anti-lasing in a single device. Their findings lay the groundwork for developing a new type of integrated device with the flexibility to operate as a laser, an amplifier, a modulator, and a detector.
RICHLAND, Wash. - It may sound like science fiction, but wastewater treatment plants across the United States may one day turn ordinary sewage into biocrude oil, thanks to new research at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.The technology, hydrothermal liquefaction, mimics the geological conditions the Earth uses to create crude oil, using high pressure and temperature to achieve in minutes something that takes Mother Nature millions of years.
ORNL study shows mixing lignin, low-cost additives with rubber produces high-performance renewable thermoplastics; Scientists can "squeeze" more fuel from shale in ExxonMobil-funded study; ORNL hosts Buildings 13 conference for building envelope experts.
Berkeley Lab researchers found that aberrant strands of genetic code have telltale signs that enable gateway proteins to recognize and block them from exiting the nucleus. Their findings shed light on a complex system of cell regulation that acts as a form of quality control for the transport of genetic information. A more complete picture of how genetic information gets expressed in cells is important in disease research.
PPPL Scientists Present Key Results at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics
Article roundups several PPPL news releases from the 58th annual APS Division of Plasma Physics conference.
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated that permanent magnets produced by additive manufacturing can outperform bonded magnets made using traditional techniques while conserving critical materials.
Patches of chain-like molecules placed across nanoscale particles can radically transform the optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of particle-based materials. Now, scientists have used cutting-edge electron tomography techniques--a process of 3D reconstructive imaging--to pinpoint the structure and composition of the polymer nano-patches.
Theoretical physicists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently used Titan, America's most powerful supercomputer, to compute the nuclear structure of nickel-78 and found that this neutron-rich nucleus is indeed doubly magic.