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  • Sooyeon Hwang (sitting), Dong Su (left, standing, and Shuang Li at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials, where they used electron microscopes to see how the crystal structure and chemical nature of a battery electrode made of an iron-oxide material called magnetite evolved as lithium was inserted and extracted over 100 charge and discharge cycles.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Sooyeon Hwang (sitting), Dong Su (left, standing, and Shuang Li at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials, where they used electron microscopes to see how the crystal structure and chemical nature of a battery electrode made of an iron-oxide material called magnetite evolved as lithium was inserted and extracted over 100 charge and discharge cycles.
  • The fade in battery capacity is due to the formation and thickening of internal and surface passivation layers during charge and discharge cycles. For the electrochemical reactions to occur, lithium ions (Li+) and electrons (e-) must travel through all these layers to reach active nanoparticles (NPs) at the electrode. Top: Fe3O4 (iron oxide) sample after three cycles. Bottom: Fe3O4 sample after 100 cycles. The development of kinetic barriers during long-term cycling limits electrochemical reactions to such an extent that no reduction-oxidation reactions occur at the electrode materials after 100 cycles.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    The fade in battery capacity is due to the formation and thickening of internal and surface passivation layers during charge and discharge cycles. For the electrochemical reactions to occur, lithium ions (Li+) and electrons (e-) must travel through all these layers to reach active nanoparticles (NPs) at the electrode. Top: Fe3O4 (iron oxide) sample after three cycles. Bottom: Fe3O4 sample after 100 cycles. The development of kinetic barriers during long-term cycling limits electrochemical reactions to such an extent that no reduction-oxidation reactions occur at the electrode materials after 100 cycles.
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