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Newswise: More ecosystem engineers create stability, preventing extinctions
2-Jul-2020 1:30 PM EDT
More ecosystem engineers create stability, preventing extinctions
Santa Fe Institute

Biological builders like beavers, elephants, and shipworms re-engineer their environments. How this affects their ecological network is the subject of new research, which finds that increasing the number of "ecosystem engineers" stabilizes the entire network against extinctions.

Newswise: Cave divers unlock mysteries of the earliest Americans
3-Jul-2020 2:05 PM EDT
Cave divers unlock mysteries of the earliest Americans
McMaster University

A team of underwater cave explorers in Mexico have made unprecedented archeological discoveries in some of the most inaccessible places on Earth that unlock key mysteries about the earliest inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere, according to international experts who have studied the sites.

Newswise:Video Embedded peering-under-galactic-dust-study-reveals-radiation-at-center-of-milky-way
VIDEO
26-Jun-2020 2:00 PM EDT
Peering under galactic dust, study reveals radiation at center of Milky Way
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Thanks to 20 years of homegrown galactic data, astronomers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, UW–Whitewater and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University have finally figured out just how much energy permeates the center of the Milky Way. The researchers say it could one day help astronomers track down where all that energy comes from. Understanding the source of the radiation could help explain not only the nature of the Milky Way, but the countless others that resemble it.

Newswise: How the body regulates scar tissue growth after heart attacks
Released: 3-Jul-2020 11:35 AM EDT
How the body regulates scar tissue growth after heart attacks
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences

New UCLA research conducted in mice could explain why some people suffer more extensive scarring than others after a heart attack. The study, published in the journal Cell, reveals that a protein known as type 5 collagen plays a critical role in regulating the size of scar tissue in the heart.

Released: 3-Jul-2020 10:25 AM EDT
Lack of lockdown increased COVID-19 deaths in Sweden
University of Virginia Health System

Sweden’s controversial decision not to lock down during COVID-19 produced more deaths and greater healthcare demand than seen in countries with earlier, more stringent interventions, a new analysis finds.

30-Jun-2020 8:50 AM EDT
Cutting Down But Not Out: Very-Heavy Drinkers Needn’t Quit Completely for Cardiovascular Benefit
Research Society on Alcoholism

High-risk drinkers who substantially reduce their alcohol use can lower their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite not completely abstaining, according to study findings published in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. CVD encompasses a range of conditions involving the heart or blood vessels, and is the leading cause of death in the US. It is also one of many negative health outcomes associated with heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Reductions in drinking can be defined using World Health Organization (WHO) ‘risk drinking levels’, which classify drinkers into ‘very high’, ‘high’, ‘moderate’ and ‘low’ risk categories based on their average daily alcohol consumption. Previous research has shown that a reduction of two or more levels (for example, from ‘very high’ to ‘moderate’) can lower the risk of multiple health issues, but did not assess the impact on CVD specifically. The latest study has examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking

Newswise:Video Embedded warwick-moto-superbike-designs-unveiled
VIDEO
Released: 3-Jul-2020 8:55 AM EDT
Warwick Moto superbike designs unveiled
University of Warwick

As the government has announced proposals to ban the sale of petrol, diesel and hybrid cars by 2035 the race to electrify the motor industry is on, and motorbikes aren’t to be overlooked.

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Released: 3-Jul-2020 7:50 AM EDT
Closing the gap: Citizen science for monitoring sustainable development
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Citizen science could help track progress towards all 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). An IIASA-led study, for the first time, comprehensively analyzed the current and potential contribution of citizen science data to monitor the SDGs at the indicator level.

Newswise: A new way towards super-fast motion of vortices in superconductors discovered
Released: 3-Jul-2020 6:55 AM EDT
A new way towards super-fast motion of vortices in superconductors discovered
University of Vienna

An international team of scientists from Austria, Germany and Ukraine has found a new superconducting system in which magnetic flux quanta can move at velocities of 10-15 km/s. This opens access to investigations of the rich physics of non-equilibrium collective systems and renders a direct-write Nb-C superconductor as a candidate material for single-photon detectors.

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Embargo will expire: 6-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 10:05 PM EDT

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Newswise: UC San Diego Receives $1.6 Million to Better Prepare Young Adults for Engineering and Technical Careers
Released: 2-Jul-2020 7:45 PM EDT
UC San Diego Receives $1.6 Million to Better Prepare Young Adults for Engineering and Technical Careers
University of California San Diego

Longtime University of California San Diego supporter Buzz Woolley has pledged $1.6 million over the next three years to fund an innovative new initiative that will significantly expand the region’s engineering and technical workforce.

Newswise: Study pinpoints new function for histones
Released: 2-Jul-2020 4:05 PM EDT
Study pinpoints new function for histones
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences

Scientists discovered that histones act as an enzyme that converts copper into a form that can be used by the cells. The finding refutes earlier theories that copper spontaneously converts in the body into a usable state.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 3:15 PM EDT
UA Little Rock’s new flexible MBA program offers best of online, face-to-face classes
University of Arkansas at Little Rock

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock is offering Master of Business Administration (MBA) students the opportunity to embrace the best of on-campus and online learning through a new flexible MBA program.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 3:10 PM EDT
Researchers outline adapted health communications principles for the COVID-19 pandemic
CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced unique challenges for public health practitioners and health communicators that warrant an expansion of existing health communication principles to take into consideration.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:55 PM EDT
Research reflects how AI sees through the looking glass
Cornell University

Intrigued by how reflection changes images in subtle and not-so-subtle ways, a team of Cornell University researchers used artificial intelligence to investigate what sets originals apart from their reflections. Their algorithms learned to pick up on unexpected clues such as hair parts, gaze direction and, surprisingly, beards – findings with implications for training machine learning models and detecting faked images.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:40 PM EDT
Geoscientists Create Deeper Look at Processes Below Earth’s Surface with 3D Images
University of Texas at Dallas

Geoscientists at The University of Texas at Dallas recently used supercomputers to analyze massive amounts of earthquake data to generate high-resolution, 3D images of the dynamic geological processes taking place far below the Earth’s surface.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:25 PM EDT
Study: Crowdsourced Data Could Help Map Urban Food Deserts
University of Texas at Dallas

New research from The University of Texas at Dallas suggests food deserts might be more prevalent in the U.S. than the numbers reported in government estimates.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:20 PM EDT
In the Arctic, spring snowmelt triggers fresh CO2 production
San Diego State University

Studies have shown the Arctic is warming roughly twice as fast as the rest of the world, and its soil holds twice the amount of carbon dioxide as the atmosphere. New research from San Diego State University finds that water from spring snowmelt infiltrates the soil and triggers fresh carbon dioxide production at higher rates than previously assumed.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:15 PM EDT
Hot flushes and night sweats linked to 70% increase in cardiovascular disease
University of Queensland

New research from The University of Queensland has found that women who have hot flushes and night sweats after menopause are 70 per cent more likely to have heart attacks, angina and strokes.

Newswise: Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry
Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:10 PM EDT
Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry
Argonne National Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced more than $33 million in funding for 82 projects aimed at advancing commercialization of promising energy technologies and strengthening partnerships between DOE’s National Laboratories and private-sector companies.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:10 PM EDT
Oat and rye bran fibres alter gut microbiota, reducing weight gain and hepatic inflammation
University of Eastern Finland

In a newly published experimental study, the consumption of dietary fibre from oat and rye brans supported the growth of beneficial gut microbiota, which in turn ameliorated cholesterol metabolism, enhanced gut barrier function and reduced hepatic inflammation.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 2:05 PM EDT
Sniffing Out Smell
Harvard Medical School

Neuroscientists reveal for the first time how relationships between different odors are encoded in the brain. Findings may explain why individuals have common but highly personalized experiences with smell, and inform efforts to understand how odor chemistry is translated into perception.

Newswise: 06bGJ15Is-a14_xSMxRUooAFH1rd7Cm0GMN3k_TbiY9ayP-7Bv8BO1tazJSYY9tX2b0hbKAu8KlhylLNBOqqTMrR9IhDfiKa1a6UvG0x2HS9-ZAEsbJfB285evMaun8TJ2g0OkkXqrZOguX6jYSTloZqMoPZ5BZdNZcJohWL4k598cjqkEwK5kWUE-lFum2MfRuoNa-ZmtNG-nfnRTI=s0-
25-Jun-2020 10:35 AM EDT
Anaplasmosis bacterium tinkers with tick’s gene expression to spread to new hosts
PLOS

For the first time, scientists have shown that the bacterium that causes the tick-borne disease anaplasmosis interferes with tick gene expression for its survival inside cells and to spread to a new vertebrate host.

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Embargo will expire: 7-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 1:55 PM EDT

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Newswise: 236463_web.jpg
Released: 2-Jul-2020 1:45 PM EDT
Arctic plants may not provide predicted carbon sequestration potential
University of Stirling

The environmental benefits of taller, shrubbier tundra plants in the Arctic may be overstated, according to new research involving the University of Stirling.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 1:40 PM EDT
Collectivism drives efforts to reduce the spread of COVID-19
University of Kent

Research from the University of Kent has found that people who adopt a collectivist mindset are more likely to comply with social distancing and hygiene practices to help reduce the spread of COVID-19.

Newswise: Reverse engineering of 3D printed parts by machine learning 
Reveals security vulnerabilities
Released: 2-Jul-2020 1:10 PM EDT
Reverse engineering of 3D printed parts by machine learning Reveals security vulnerabilities
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Glass- and carbon- fiber reinforced composites, whose use in aerospace and other high-performance applications is soaring. Components made of these materials are often 3D printed. Their strength and flexibility depends on how each layer of fibers is deposited by the printer head, whose layer-by-layer orientation is determined by toolpath instricutions in a component's CAD file. A team of NYU Tandon researchers showed that that 3D printing toolpaths are easy to reproduce — and therefore steal — with machine learning. They demonstrated a method of reverse engineering of a 3D-printed glass fiber reinforced polymer filament that, when 3D-printed, has a dimensional accuracy within one-third of 1% of the original part.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:45 PM EDT
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland State University Receive $1.2 Million NIH Award to Recruit Underrepresented Minority Ph.D. Students
Cleveland Clinic

At a time when the national conversation is focused on narrowing the gap of racial equity, two of Cleveland’s anchor institutions have been awarded grant funding that will help them turn words into action. Cleveland State University and Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute received a five-year, $1.2 million T32 training award from the National Institutes of Health to recruit underrepresented minority Ph.D. students and students underrepresented in the science and technology workforce.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:40 PM EDT
How Prison and Police Discrimination Affect Black Sexual Minority Men’s Health
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

Incarceration and police discrimination may contribute to HIV, depression and anxiety among Black gay, bisexual and other sexual minority men, a Rutgers led study finds.

Newswise: Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:40 PM EDT
Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

A team used the Summit supercomputer to simulate transition metal systems—such as copper bound to molecules of nitrogen, dihydrogen, or water—and correctly predicted the amount of energy required to break apart dozens of molecular systems, paving the way for a greater understanding of these materials.

Newswise: West Virginia researchers use neutrons to study materials for power plant improvements
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:35 PM EDT
West Virginia researchers use neutrons to study materials for power plant improvements
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Researchers from West Virginia University are using neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study novel materials called high entropy oxides, or HEOs. Their goal is to collect insights into how the atoms in the HEOs bind together and whether the materials can be used to develop useful applications to improve power plant operations.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:30 PM EDT
Tiny mineral particles are better vehicles for promising gene therapy
University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Wisconsin–Madison researchers have developed a safer and more efficient way to deliver a promising new method for treating cancer and liver disorders and for vaccination — including a COVID-19 vaccine from Moderna Therapeutics that has advanced to clinical trials with humans.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:20 PM EDT
New method measures temperature within 3D objects
University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Wisconsin–Madison engineers have made it possible to remotely determine the temperature beneath the surface of certain materials using a new technique they call depth thermography. The method may be useful in applications where traditional temperature probes won’t work, like monitoring semiconductor performance or next-generation nuclear reactors.

Newswise: Newer variant of COVID-19–causing virus dominates global infections
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:10 PM EDT
Newer variant of COVID-19–causing virus dominates global infections
Los Alamos National Laboratory

Research out today in the journal Cell shows that a specific change in the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus virus genome, previously associated with increased viral transmission and the spread of COVID-19, is more infectious in cell culture.

Newswise: From Wuhan to San Diego—How a mutation on the novel coronavirus has come to dominate the globe
Released: 2-Jul-2020 12:05 PM EDT
From Wuhan to San Diego—How a mutation on the novel coronavirus has come to dominate the globe
La Jolla Institute for Immunology

Two variants of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), called G614 and D614, were circulating in mid-March. A new study shows that the G version of the virus has come to dominate cases around the world. They report that this mutation does not make the virus more deadly, but it does help the virus copy itself, resulting in a higher viral load, or "titer," in patients.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:50 AM EDT
New Study Explains Potential Causes for “Happy Hypoxia” Condition in COVID-19 Patients
Loyola Medicine

A new research study provides possible explanations for COVID-19 patients who present with extremely low, otherwise life-threatening levels of oxygen, but no signs of dyspnea (difficulty breathing). This new understanding of the condition, known as silent hypoxemia or “happy hypoxia,” could prevent unnecessary intubation and ventilation in patients during the current and expected second wave of coronavirus.

Newswise:Video Embedded science-fiction-becomes-fact-teleportation-helps-to-create-live-musical-performance
VIDEO
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:40 AM EDT
Science fiction becomes fact -- Teleportation helps to create live musical performance
University of Plymouth

Teleportation is most commonly the stuff of science fiction and, for many, would conjure up the immortal phrase "Beam me up Scotty".

Newswise: Integrating Variable Signals in Hydrogels
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:05 AM EDT
Integrating Variable Signals in Hydrogels
Department of Energy, Office of Science

All living organisms have systems that can link multiple signals to manage tasks. This ability, called complex signal integration, is not found in artificial systems. This new study demonstrates a pathway for simple, soft artificial materials called hydrogel polymers to use multiple signals from external sources to produce distinct responses.

Newswise: Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:05 AM EDT
Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, are advancing gas membrane materials to expand practical technology options for reducing industrial carbon emissions.

Newswise: Research News Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT
Research News Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins Medicine
Johns Hopkins Medicine

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Johns Hopkins Medicine Media Relations is focused on disseminating current, accurate and useful information to the public via the media. As part of that effort, we are distributing our “COVID-19 Tip Sheet: Story Ideas from Johns Hopkins” every Tuesday throughout the duration of the outbreak.

Newswise: Stellar Fireworks Celebrate Birth of Giant Cluster
Released: 2-Jul-2020 11:00 AM EDT
Stellar Fireworks Celebrate Birth of Giant Cluster
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Astronomers created a stunning new image showing celestial fireworks in star cluster G286.21+0.17.

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Newswise: How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than ‘Multiply by 7’
29-Jun-2020 7:50 PM EDT
How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than ‘Multiply by 7’
University of California San Diego Health

By mapping molecular changes in the genome over time, UC San Diego researchers developed a formula to more accurately compare dog age to human age — a tool that could also help them evaluate how well anti-aging products work.

Newswise: 070120-bes-holograms.jpg?itok=F5sxZVUl
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:55 AM EDT
Designing Better Holograms
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Researchers demonstrated novel ways to design and build materials for controlling light. The new materials have two layers of metasurfaces, overcoming the limits on conventional single-layer materials. The novel two-layer design enables a new level of control over light properties and more functionality for devices that use these materials.

Newswise: 063020-bes-synthetic-trees.jpg?itok=trPxk0s9
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:30 AM EDT
Stabilizing Water Loss in Synthetic Trees
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Scientists are developing “synthetic trees” that work like their natural counterparts to serve in specific applications. In an important step, scientists fabricated synthetic leaves using nanoporous disks that control moisture at the scale of molecules to mimic natural transpiration. The disks use a novel, layered design topped with silicon pores to trap water vapor.

Newswise: Being Exceptional in Higher Dimensions
Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:25 AM EDT
Being Exceptional in Higher Dimensions
Department of Energy, Office of Science

By connecting electromagnetic waves and magnetism to create a system made of magnon polaritons, scientists demonstrated the existence of an “exceptional surface” for the first time. Exceptional surfaces were originally a purely mathematical concept, but recent research shows they have potential physical, real-world applications.

Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:15 AM EDT
Stemming the Spread of Misinformation on Social Media
Association for Psychological Science

New research reported in the journal Psychological Science finds that priming people to think about accuracy could make them more discerning in what they subsequently share on social media.

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Embargo will expire: 8-Jul-2020 8:00 AM EDT Released to reporters: 2-Jul-2020 10:15 AM EDT

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Released: 2-Jul-2020 10:10 AM EDT
Gender gaps in STEM college majors emerge in high school
Cornell University

Although studies have shown that women are more likely than men to enter and complete college in U.S. higher education, women are less likely to earn degrees in science, technology, engineering and math fields. In new research, Kim Weeden, the Jan Rock Zubrow ’77 Professor of the Social Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences at Cornell University, traces the discrepancy in college majors back to gender differences that emerge early in high school.


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