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    • 2016-05-23 11:05:28
    • Article ID: 654049

    5 Ways Scientists Can Make Soil Less Dirty

    • Several different remediation processes are available to clean up soil, varying in efficiency, cost and sustainability for specific site conditions. When officials suspect a site is contaminated, they conduct an assessment to determine the pollutant, the extent of contamination and the appropriate method to remediate the soil.

    5 ways scientists can make soil less dirty

    It may be hard to imagine, but soil gets dirty. Soil can become contaminated with oil, grease, heavy metals or pesticides through urban and agricultural runoff, as well as industrial spills or precipitation.

    The clean-up process involves more than a broom and a dust pan. Soil must undergo remediation – the process of removing pollutants and contaminants from the ground.

    Several different remediation processes are available, varying in efficiency, cost and sustainability for specific site conditions. When officials suspect a site is contaminated, they conduct an assessment to determine the pollutant, the extent of contamination and the appropriate method to remediate the soil.

    The Applied Geosciences and Environment Management Program at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory evaluates potentially contaminated sites and applies remediation methods, such as those described below, that are both efficient and environmentally friendly by reducing secondary impacts – such as emissions from trucks that transport soil to a treatment facility.

    Air Sparging

    Air sparging, also referred to as soil venting, involves injecting air into the soil or groundwater. The air moves horizontally and vertically through the soil, causing the contaminants to evaporate into a gas. This method works best for contaminants that easily evaporate, such as crude oil.

    Air sparging is an example of an in-situ remediation method, in which the contaminated soil does not need to be removed. In-situ methods tend to be more environmentally friendly than those that are ex-situ where the soil is first removed and then treated at the surface, said Lorraine LaFreniere, an Argonne geological engineer who leads Argonne’s Applied Geosciences and Environment Management program.

    “In in-situ methods, you’re not bringing any of the contaminants to the surface,” LaFreniere said. “You have the advantage of not exposing anybody to the contamination or the remediation process itself.”

    Air Stripping

    Air stripping is an ex-situ method specifically for water, in which contaminated groundwater is collected and filtered through a machine called an air stripper.

    The groundwater goes into the top of the machine and cascades to the bottom as fine droplets, while air enters from the bottom and is forced upward. The air strips away the contaminants as it rises through the droplets and exits through an opening at the top.

    Determining whether to use an in-situ or ex-situ process depends on how the contamination is distributed throughout the soil and to what depth, researchers said. For example, if the contaminated soil is buried under clean soil, the clean soil would have to first be removed.

    Enhanced Biodegradation

    Nature itself tries to help eliminate soil contaminants through a naturally occurring process called biodegradation. Certain microorganisms in the soil feed on contaminants, such as tar deposits.

    Argonne researchers, in collaboration with other scientists, found that injecting zero-valent iron – iron in its elemental form – into the soil accelerates natural biodegradation.

    “We injected slurry mixtures of zero-valent iron and organic matter into soils and observed that it speeds up the process considerably,” LaFreniere said.

    Phytoremediation

    Trees offer shade on a sunny day, but they can also remove contaminants from soil through phytoremediation. Trees and other deep-rooted plants absorb contaminants in soil and incorporate the contaminants into their tissues; plants also “breathe” volatile contaminants to the atmosphere, where they dissipate.

    “Plants process a lot of water during photosynthesis to get the nutrients they need,” said Cristina Negri, an Argonne agronomist and environmental engineer in the Energy Systems Division. “What we’re doing is exploiting this natural process and using plants as pumps to remove contaminants.”

    Plant-based remediation is good for contaminants, such as carbon tetrachloride, a chemical that was primarily used as a fumigant and dry cleaning agent until it was banned in the 1970s as harmful to human health.

    Argonne researchers are also using trees to monitor their progress when using phytoremediation. The scientists measure the amount of contaminants in samples of branches and tree cores to assess how much has been removed.

    Soil Vapor Extraction

    Sometimes, all you need is a really big vacuum.

    The soil vapor extraction method applies a vacuum to the soil to induce air flow and get soil vapors moving. Researchers collect the contaminated vapors in extraction wells and treat them aboveground.

    This is a useful remediation method when the contaminants are already in a vaporous state or are liquids that readily evaporate, such as methane and propane. These vapors can make their way into homes and businesses and may cause people to become ill.

    “We’re trying to develop new testing and treatment techniques to best remove contaminants and keep people safe,” LaFreniere said. “As we’re remediating, we’re also assessing the methods and technologies that we’re using.”

    Funding for LaFreniere and Negri’s research comes from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management, the Commodity Credit Corporation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    To find out more about Argonne’s environmental research, visit the Environmental Sciences division and Energy Systems division websites.

    Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit the Office of Science website.

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    Finding Gene Neighbors Leads to New Protein Functions

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    Department of Energy to Provide $2 Million for Traineeship in Isotope R&D and Production

    Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced up to $2 million to establish a traineeship program to advance workforce development in the field of isotope production, processing, and associated research, with preference to minority serving institutions.

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    ORNL's Honeycutt, Horvath Named SME 2021 Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineers

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    Media Advisory - U.S. Secretary of Energy and Other Leading Experts Talk Preparation for the Effects of Climate Change

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    The escalating effects of climate change are evident across our country, from the damaging 2020 western wildfire season to February's southern deep freeze. The need has never been greater for a national strategy that combines the long-term goal of a 100% clean energy future with immediate, science-driven actions to help all communities overcome the effects of climate change.

    Department of Energy to Provide $5 Million to Advance Workforce Development for High Energy Physics Instrumentation

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    DOE Awards $110 Million to Small Businesses Pursuing Scientific, Clean Energy, and Climate Solutions

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    Teachers Invited to Participate in Virtual Science Activities Night

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    Argonne's 2021 Maria Goeppert Mayer Fellows bring new energy, promise to their fields

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    Harvesting Energy from Light using Bio-inspired Artificial Cells

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    Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials

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    Excavating Quantum Information Buried in Noise

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    How Electrons Move in a Catastrophe

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    When Ions and Molecules Cluster

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    Tune in to Tetrahedral Superstructures

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    Tracing Interstellar Dust Back to the Solar System's Formation

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    This study is the first to confirm dust particles pre-dating the formation of our solar system. Further study of these materials will enable a deeper understanding of the processes that formed and have since altered them.

    Investigating Materials that Can Go the Distance in Fusion Reactors

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    Future fusion reactors will require materials that can withstand extreme operating conditions, including being bombarded by high-energy neutrons at high temperatures. Scientists recently irradiated titanium diboride (TiB2) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to better understand the effects of fusion neutrons on performance.

    Better 3-D Imaging of Tumors in the Breast with Less Radiation

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    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Scientists can use genetic information to measure if microbes in the environment can perform specific ecological roles. Researchers recently analyzed the genomes of over 6,000 microbial species.


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