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    The DOE Science News Source is a Newswise initiative to promote research news from the Office of Science of the DOE to the public and news media.
    • 2019-02-14 17:05:09
    • Article ID: 708140

    Argonne researchers probe origins of Universe in NASA Spectral Sky Map Mission

    • Credit: Photo by Shutterstock / Yuriy Mazur

      SPHEREx will advance NASA's science goals by probing the origin and destiny of our Universe, evaluating whether planets around other stars could harbor life, and exploring the origin and evolution of galaxies.

    NASA selects SPHEREx for launch in 2023.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has selected SPHEREx as its next Medium-Class Explorer Mission, for launch in 2023. SPHEREx, the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer, is an all-sky spectroscopic mapping mission designed to further the science goals of NASA’s Astrophysics Division by probing the origin and destiny of our Universe, evaluating whether planets around other stars could harbor life, and exploring the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx was selected to be a mission within NASA’s Explorers Program, which provides flight opportunities for world-class scientific investigations from space.

    The SPHEREx team is led by James Bock at Caltech and managed by researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The team comprises an international collaboration of universities, industry and institutes, including scientists from the Computational Science and High Energy Physics divisions at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.

    SPHEREx is a marvelous mission, and we are sure to learn a lot from it. As the first all-sky spectral survey, it will make a major impact in cosmology… Very exciting times ahead!” — Salman Habib, Division Director, Computational Science Division and Interim Deputy Director, High Energy Physics Division

    Significant Argonne contributions will include the development of cosmological simulations for SPHEREx galaxies, identification of SPHEREx sources and the computation of their redshifts, determination of the effect of different types of non-Gaussianity on the large-scale structure of the Universe, detection of cluster of galaxies and determination of their properties, and estimation of the abundance of high-redshift quasars.

    Argonne contributors include

    • Lindsey Bleem, Assistant Physicist, High Energy Physics Division: galaxy clusters
    • Jonas Chaves-Montero, Postdoctoral Appointee, High Energy Physics Division: quasars
    • Salman Habib, Division Director, Computational Science Division and Interim Deputy Director, High Energy Physics Division: galaxy catalog simulations, nongaussianity
    • Katrin Heitmann, Physicist and Computational Scientist, Physical Sciences and Engineering Directorate: galaxy catalog simulations

    In its two-year mapping mission, SPHEREx will perform a near-infrared spectral survey, scanning and mapping spectra at ultra-high sensitivity, including two deep surveys at the North and South poles. These surveys will unmask the large-scale structure of the Universe (galaxy clusters and voids) by measuring the light wave frequencies of nearly 500 million galaxies with a precision of 10 percent and the light wave frequencies of another 16 million galaxies with 0.3 percent precision.

    The mission offers benefits beyond probing the origin of our Universe: it will amass a rich legacy archive for the astronomy community, with hundreds of millions of stars and galaxies to identify targets for more detailed studies, and it will set the stage for future missions.

    According to Argonne’s Salman Habib, ​As the first all-sky spectral survey, SPHEREx will make a major impact in cosmology — not only in what it will discover, but in making the data from other instruments, such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), more meaningful. In addition, there is an excellent connection with exascale computing and making predictions for SPHEREx. Very exciting times ahead!”

    Habib’s colleagues share his enthusiasm. Bleem and Chaves-Montero are excited about the selection of SPHEREx and eager for the work to begin. Bleem expects that ​the rich dataset from this mission will allow us to answer a wide range of questions concerning the origins and evolution of our Universe. SPHEREx will also have great synergy with upcoming DOE surveys including Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and LSST.” Chaves-Montero predicts that the project ​will allow us to understand the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos by detecting the most energetic objects in the Universe: black holes with a few billion times the mass of the Sun.”

    Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation’s first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America’s scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit the Office of Science website.

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    New Laws of Attraction: Scientists Print Magnetic Liquid Droplets

    New Laws of Attraction: Scientists Print Magnetic Liquid Droplets

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have 3D-printed a magnetic device out of liquids. Their findings could lead to printable liquid magnetic devices for a variety of applications such as artificial cells that deliver targeted cancer therapies to flexible liquid robots.

    A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data

    A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data

    With high-energy X-rays, such as those that will be produced by the upgrade to Argonne's Advanced Photon Source comes a potential hitch -- the more penetrating the X-rays are, the higher a likelihood that researchers could run into problems with the image data. In a new study, researchers at Argonne have found a novel way to combat this image degradation.

    A Graphene Superconductor That Plays More Than One Tune

    A Graphene Superconductor That Plays More Than One Tune

    Researchers at Berkeley Lab have developed a graphene device that switches from a superconducting material that conducts electricity without losing any energy, to an insulator that resists the flow of electric current - all with a simple flip of a switch.

    After blasting a molecule with light, researchers watch its structure vibrate and change in real time

    After blasting a molecule with light, researchers watch its structure vibrate and change in real time

    A new study describes how a team of researchers watched a molecule vibrate after they excited it with ultraviolet light.

    Scientists deepen understanding of the magnetic fields that surround the Earth and other planets

    Scientists deepen understanding of the magnetic fields that surround the Earth and other planets

    Now, a team of scientists has completed research into waves that travel through the magnetosphere, deepening understanding of the region and its interaction with our own planet, and opening up new ways to study other planets across the galaxy.

    Light dark matter is a thousand times less likely to bump into regular matter than previous astrophysical analyses allowed

    Light dark matter is a thousand times less likely to bump into regular matter than previous astrophysical analyses allowed

    A team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has narrowed down how strongly dark matter particles might interact with normal matter. Based on the number and distribution of small satellite galaxies seen orbiting our Milky Way, the team found this interaction to be at least a thousand times weaker than the strongest interaction allowed by previous astrophysical analyses.

    New Sensor Could Shake Up Earthquake Response Efforts

    New Sensor Could Shake Up Earthquake Response Efforts

    An optical sensor developed at Berkeley Lab could speed up the time it takes to evaluate whether buildings are safe to occupy after a major earthquake. After four years of extensive peer-reviewed research and simulative testing at the University of Nevada's Earthquake Engineering Laboratory, the Discrete Diode Position Sensor (DDPS) will be deployed for the first time this summer in a multi-story building at Berkeley Lab - which sits adjacent to the Hayward Fault, considered one of the most dangerous faults in the United States.

    The best of both worlds: how to solve real problems on modern quantum computers

    The best of both worlds: how to solve real problems on modern quantum computers

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, along with researchers at Clemson University and Fujitsu Laboratories of America, have developed hybrid algorithms to run on size-limited quantum machines and have demonstrated them for practical applications.

    Designer proteins form wires and lattices on mineral surface

    Designer proteins form wires and lattices on mineral surface

    This research is a fundamental discovery of how to engineer proteins onto non-biological surfaces. Artificial proteins engineered from scratch have been assembled into nanorod arrays, designer filaments and honeycomb lattices on the surface of mica, demonstrating control over the way proteins interact with surfaces to form complex structures previously seen only in natural protein systems. The study provides a foundation for understanding how protein-crystal interactions can be systematically programmed and sets the stage for designing novel protein-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Giving nanowires a DNA-like twist

    Giving nanowires a DNA-like twist

    Argonne National Laboratory played a critical role in the discovery of a DNA-like twisted crystal structure created with a germanium sulfide nanowire, also known as a "van der Waals material." Researchers can tailor these nanowires in many different ways -- twist periods from two to twenty micrometers, lengths up to hundreds of micrometers, and radial dimensions from several hundred nanometers to about ten micrometers. By this means, they can adjust the electrical and optical properties to optimize performance for different applications.


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    Department of Energy awards $4.6 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry

    Department of Energy awards $4.6 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently announced more than $24 million in funding for 77 projects aimed at advancing commercialization of promising energy technologies and strengthening partnerships between DOE's National Laboratories and private-sector companies to deploy important technologies to the marketplace. DOE's Argonne National Laboratory received $4.6 million to fund 12 projects across four research divisions.

    SLAC makes 'electron camera,' a world-class tool for ultrafast science, available to scientists worldwide

    SLAC makes 'electron camera,' a world-class tool for ultrafast science, available to scientists worldwide

    Over the past few years, the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a new tool to visualize physical and chemical processes with outstanding clarity: an ultra-high-speed "electron camera" capable of tracking atomic motions in a broad range of materials in real time. Starting this week, the lab has made this tool available to researchers worldwide.

    Berkeley Lab Scientists Earn Prestigious White House Early Career Award

    Berkeley Lab Scientists Earn Prestigious White House Early Career Award

    Two scientists with Berkeley Lab - and two faculty scientists jointly affiliated with Berkeley Lab and the University of California, Berkeley - are among 315 researchers named on July 2 by President Trump to receive the prestigious Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

    Caltech's Castaneda Named Director of Human Resources at PNNL

    Caltech's Castaneda Named Director of Human Resources at PNNL

    April Castaneda, a senior executive with 20 years of experience leading human resources programs at Caltech and NASA's Jet propulsion Laboratory, has been named director of Human Resources at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

    JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab

    JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab

    Jefferson Sciences Associates has announced the award of nine graduate fellowships to doctoral students for the 2019-2020 academic year.

    Argonne's Jim Morman Elected Fellow of American Nuclear Society

    Argonne's Jim Morman Elected Fellow of American Nuclear Society

    Jim Morman from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has been elected a fellow of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), the highest grade of membership that the society offers.

    Will Fox wins 2019 Thomas H. Stix Award for early career contributions to plasma physics

    Will Fox wins 2019 Thomas H. Stix Award for early career contributions to plasma physics

    PPPL physicist brings astrophysical processes down to Earth

    U.S. Department of Energy Renews Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials

    U.S. Department of Energy Renews Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials

    The Department of Energy has announced that, over the next four years, it will invest $32 million to accelerate the design of new materials through use of high-performance computing. One of the seven funded projects is the Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials (MICCoM), founded in 2015 and led by the Materials Science Division at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory. This center draws co-investigators from the University of Chicago, University of Notre Dame, and University of California, Davis.

    Department of Energy Announces $13 Million for Atmospheric Research

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $13 million in funding for 27 projects in atmospheric sciences in an effort to improve models for predicting weather and climate.


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    Bursts of Light Shape Walls Between Waves of Charge

    Bursts of Light Shape Walls Between Waves of Charge

    To better store data, scientists need ways to change a material's properties suddenly. For example, they want a material that can go from insulator to conductor and back again. Now, they devised a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and back again, with flashes of light. A single light pulse turns thin sheets of tantalum disulfide from its original (alpha) state into a mixture of alpha and beta states. Domain walls separate the two states. A second pulse of light dissolves the walls, and the material returns to its original state.

    Deep Learning Reveals Mysteries of Deep Space

    Deep Learning Reveals Mysteries of Deep Space

    How do you determine the measurable "things" that describe the nature of our universe? To answer that question, researchers used CosmoFlow, a deep learning technique, running on a National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center supercomputer. They analyzed large, complex data sets from 3-D simulations of the distribution of matter to answer that question. The team showed that CosmoFlow offers a new platform to gain a deeper understanding of the universe.

    At DOE's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility, science drives next-gen creations

    At DOE's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility, science drives next-gen creations

    American ingenuity is providing radical productivity improvements from advanced materials and robotic systems developed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    High-Fidelity Multiphysics Simulations to Improve Nuclear Reactor Safety and Economics

    High-Fidelity Multiphysics Simulations to Improve Nuclear Reactor Safety and Economics

    Engineers can model heat distribution in reactor designs with fewer or no approximations.

    Tiny Vortices Could One Day Haul Microscopic Cargo

    Tiny Vortices Could One Day Haul Microscopic Cargo

    The behavior of active magnetic liquids suggests new pathways to transport particles across surfaces and build materials that self-heal.

    How Does Mother Nature Tackle the Tough Triple Bond Found in Nitrogen?

    How Does Mother Nature Tackle the Tough Triple Bond Found in Nitrogen?

    Researchers demystify how the nitrogenase enzyme breaks bonds to learn a better way to make ammonia.

    A Detailed View of the Ancestor of Photosynthesis

    A Detailed View of the Ancestor of Photosynthesis

    The symmetrical light-gathering, energy-producing complex offers insights into how modern photosystems evolved.

    Unique Interface and Unexpected Behavior Help Explain How Heavy Metals Act

    Unique Interface and Unexpected Behavior Help Explain How Heavy Metals Act

    Three types of water molecules form around a platinum-based ion, offering insights for waste processing and metal refining.

    Maximizing Ozone Signals

    Maximizing Ozone Signals

    New technique enables more efficient and precise estimates of trends in ozone and other atmospheric constituents within selected geographical regions and timeframes.

    How Much Water Does the World Use?

    How Much Water Does the World Use?

    Global data set shows monthly water use by irrigation, manufacturing, and other uses, helping researchers to analyze water use by region and season.


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