DOE News
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    The DOE Science News Source is a Newswise initiative to promote research news from the Office of Science of the DOE to the public and news media.
    • 2020-05-20 15:30:04
    • Article ID: 731913

    Untangling a key step in photosynthetic oxygen production

    Understanding nature's process could inform the next generation of artificial photosynthetic systems that produce clean and renewable energy from sunlight and water.

    • Credit: Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

      A new technique allows scientists to map how electrons flow in the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II. The ultimate goal is to assemble an atomic movie of the entire process, including the elusive transient state that bonds oxygen atoms from two water molecules to form oxygen molecules.

    Photosystem II is a protein complex in plants, algae and cyanobacteria that is responsible for splitting water and producing the oxygen we breathe. Over the past few years, an international collaboration between scientists at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and several other institutions have been able to observe various steps of this water-splitting cycle at the temperature at which it occurs in nature.

    Now, the team has used the same method to zero in on a key step in which a water molecule moves in to bridge manganese and calcium atoms in the catalytic complex that splits water to produce breathable oxygen. What they learned brings them one step closer to obtaining a complete picture of this natural process, which could inform the next generation of artificial photosynthetic systems that produce clean and renewable energy from sunlight and water. Their results were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences today.

    “We demonstrated that it is possible to make these measurements in previous iterations of this work, but we never had the spatial resolution or enough time points to really drill down into these finer details,” says co-author Uwe Bergmann, a distinguished staff scientist at SLAC. “After carefully optimizing this experiment over many years, we honed our ability to make measurements at high enough quality to see these tiny changes for the first time.”

    The bucket brigade

    During photosynthesis, the oxygen-evolving complex, a cluster of four manganese atoms and one calcium atom connected by oxygen atoms, cycles through four stable oxidation states, known as S0 through S3, when exposed to sunlight.  

    On a baseball field, S0 would be the start of the game when a player on home base is ready to go to bat. S1-S3 would be players on first, second, and third. Every time a batter connects with a ball, or the complex absorbs a photon of sunlight, the player on the field advances one base. When the fourth ball is hit, the player slides into home, scoring a run or, in the case of Photosystem II, releasing breathable oxygen. This research focused on the transition from Sto S3, the last stable intermediate state before an oxygen molecule is produced.

    The oxygen-evolving complex is surrounded by water and protein. In the step the scientists looked at, water flows through a pathway into the complex, where one water molecule ultimately forms a bridge between a manganese atom and a calcium atom. This water molecule likely provides one of the oxygen atoms in the oxygen molecule produced at the end of the cycle.

    Using SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, the researchers found that water molecules are ferried into the complex as if through a bucket brigade: They move in many small steps from one end of the pathway to the other. They also showed that the calcium atom within the complex could be involved in shuttling the water in.

    “It’s like a Newton’s Cradle,” says Vittal Yachandra, one of the authors of the study and a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab who has been working on Photosystem II for more than 35 years. “Usually in liquid water things are constantly moving around, but now we are in this fascinating situation where some of the water molecules around the manganese cluster change their position, while others are actually always in the same place. You can repeat the experiment 10,000 times and they will still be sitting in that same spot.”

    Working in tandem

    At LCLS, the team zapped samples from cyanobacteria with ultrafast pulses of X-rays to collect both X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy data to map how electrons flow in the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II. Through this technique, they are able to simultaneously map its structure and uncover information about the chemical process at the manganese cluster.

    Previously, the researchers had used this technique to make sure the sample was intact and importantly, also in the right intermediate chemical state. This paper marks the first time the researchers were able to merge the two sets of information to see connections between the structural and the chemical changes. This allowed the researchers to watch how the steps unfold in real time, and learn new things about the reaction.

    “It is exciting to see the ‘cause and effect’ of changes induced by light absorption as they happen,” Yachandra says.

    “It is easy to forget how critical the environment is and how it enables these really complicated processes,” says Junko Yano, one of the authors of the study and a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab. “Life does not happen in a vacuum; all components have to work together to make the reaction possible. These results show us how the protein and water molecules around the catalytic cluster work in tandem for making oxygen. Our results will start a new way of thinking and inspire new kinds of questions.”

    Ready, set, action!

    Beyond photosynthesis, Yano says, this technique can be applied to other enzymatic systems to make more detailed snapshots of catalytic reactions.

    “It allows us to connect the structural biology and chemistry of systems to understand and control complicated chemical reactions,” she says.

    The ultimate goal of the project is to piece together an atomic movie using many snapshots made throughout the process, including the elusive transient state at the end that bonds two oxygen atoms from two water molecules to form the oxygen molecule.

    “Our dream is to go around the whole reaction cycle and get enough time points and details that you can see the entire process unfold, from the first photon of light coming in to the first molecule of breathable oxygen coming out,” says co-author Jan Kern, a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab. “We’ve been building the set for this movie, establishing our technique and showing what’s possible. Now the cameras are finally rolling and we can start working on the feature film.”

    In addition to SLAC and Berkeley Lab, the collaboration includes researchers from Uppsala  University and Umeå University in Sweden; Humboldt University of Berlin and the University of Heidelberg in Germany; the University of California, Berkeley and the University of California, San Francisco; the Diamond Light Source and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK; and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute and RIKEN SPring-8 Center in Japan.

    Key components of this work were carried out at SLAC’s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL); Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS) and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); and the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA) in Japan. LCLS, SSRL, ALS and NERSC are DOE Office of Science user facilities. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science and the National Institutes of Health, among other funding agencies.

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    Scientists Successfully Demonstrate a New Experiment in the Search for Theorized 'Neutrinoless' Process

    Scientists Successfully Demonstrate a New Experiment in the Search for Theorized 'Neutrinoless' Process

    Nuclear physicists affiliated with Berkeley Lab played a leading role in analyzing data for a demonstration experiment in France that has achieved record precision for a specialized detector material.

    Argonne soil carbon research reduces uncertainty in predicting climate change impacts

    Argonne soil carbon research reduces uncertainty in predicting climate change impacts

    DOE and USDA researchers use new global models to study how environmental controllers affect soil organic carbon, changes in which can alter atmospheric carbon concentrations and affect climate. Predictions could benefit industry mitigation plans.

    Learning more about particle collisions with machine learning

    Learning more about particle collisions with machine learning

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    New cathode coating extends lithium-ion battery life, boosts safety

    New cathode coating extends lithium-ion battery life, boosts safety

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    Scientists Dive Deep Into Hidden World of Quantum States

    Scientists Dive Deep Into Hidden World of Quantum States

    A research team led by the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has developed a technique that could lead to new electronic materials that surpass the limitations imposed by Moore's Law.

    Precise Measurement of Pions Confirms Understanding 
of Fundamental Symmetry

    Precise Measurement of Pions Confirms Understanding of Fundamental Symmetry

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    Story Tips: Predicting fire risk, solid state stability check and images in a flash

    Story Tips: Predicting fire risk, solid state stability check and images in a flash

    ORNL Story Tips: Predicting fire risk, solid state stability check and images in a flash

    Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups

    Summit Helps Predict Molecular Breakups

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    Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions

    Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions

    Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, are advancing gas membrane materials to expand practical technology options for reducing industrial carbon emissions.

    Science Snapshots July 2020

    Science Snapshots July 2020

    Berkeley Lab Science Snapshots July 2020


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    Fundamental Exploration Into Future Clean Energy Technologies Receives DOE Support

    Fundamental Exploration Into Future Clean Energy Technologies Receives DOE Support

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently awarded $65 million in grants to support research that will advance safe, reliable, and clean nuclear energy. Among those projects are two led by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, which received a combined total of $1.2 million.

    Argonne to explore how digital twins may transform nuclear energy with $8 million from ARPA-E's GEMINA program

    Argonne to explore how digital twins may transform nuclear energy with $8 million from ARPA-E's GEMINA program

    ARPA-E's GEMINA funding will allow Argonne's nuclear scientists to partner with industry and develop tools for the advanced reactors of tomorrow.

    Brookhaven and Forge Nano to Mature Noble Gas-Trapping Technology

    Brookhaven and Forge Nano to Mature Noble Gas-Trapping Technology

    Through DOE's Technology Commercialization Fund, the national lab-startup team will develop "nanocages" for nuclear applications.

    Chicago Quantum Exchange welcomes seven new partners in tech, computing and finance, to advance research and training

    Chicago Quantum Exchange welcomes seven new partners in tech, computing and finance, to advance research and training

    The Chicago-based research hub expands to include 13 total industry leaders in tech, computing, finance.

    EIC Center at Jefferson Lab Announces Six New Research Awards

    EIC Center at Jefferson Lab Announces Six New Research Awards

    The Electron-Ion Collider Center at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (EIC Center at Jefferson Lab) has announced the winners of six international fellowships. The fellows will pursue research over the next year related to advancing the science program of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a one-of-a-kind nuclear physics research facility to be built over the next decade at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, in partnership with Jefferson Lab.

    Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry

    Department of Energy awards $3.15 million to Argonne to support collaborations with industry

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced more than $33 million in funding for 82 projects aimed at advancing commercialization of promising energy technologies and strengthening partnerships between DOE's National Laboratories and private-sector companies.

    Analyzing Matter's Building Blocks

    Analyzing Matter's Building Blocks

    Nobuo Sato is working to put the know in femto. He's just been awarded a five-year, multimillion dollar research grant by the Department of Energy to develop a "FemtoAnalyzer" that will help nuclear physicists image the three-dimensional internal structure of protons and neutrons. Now, Sato is among 76 scientists nationwide who have been awarded a grant through the DOE Office of Science's Early Career Research Program to pursue their research.

    Particle Physicist Takes the Lead on Groundbreaking Electron Measurement

    Particle Physicist Takes the Lead on Groundbreaking Electron Measurement

    James "Jim" Fast has joined Jefferson Lab as the MOLLER Project Manager. MOLLER is the "Measurement of a Lepton-Lepton Electroweak Reaction" experiment that will measure the weak charge of the electron.

    Six Argonne researchers receive DOE Early Career Research Program awards

    Six Argonne researchers receive DOE Early Career Research Program awards

    Argonne scientists Michael Bishof, Maria Chan, Marco Govini, Alessandro Lovato, Bogdan Nicolae and Stefan Wild have received funding for their research as part of DOE's Early Career Research Program.

    Three Fermilab scientists receive DOE Early Career Research Awards

    Three Fermilab scientists receive DOE Early Career Research Awards

    The Department of Energy's Office of Science has selected three Fermilab scientists to receive the 2020 DOE Early Career Research Award, now in its 11th year. The prestigious award is designed to bolster the nation's scientific workforce by providing support to exceptional researchers during the crucial early years, when many scientists do their most formative work.


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    Harvesting Energy from Light using Bio-inspired Artificial Cells

    Harvesting Energy from Light using Bio-inspired Artificial Cells

    Scientists designed and connected two different artificial cells to each other to produce molecules called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

    Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials

    Engineering Living Scaffolds for Building Materials

    Bone and mollusk shells are composite systems that combine living cells and inorganic components. This allows them to regenerate and change structure while also being very strong and durable. Borrowing from this amazing complexity, researchers have been exploring a new class of materials called engineered living materials (ELMs).

    Excavating Quantum Information Buried in Noise

    Excavating Quantum Information Buried in Noise

    Researchers developed two new methods to assess and remove error in how scientists measure quantum systems. By reducing quantum "noise" - uncertainty inherent to quantum processes - these new methods improve accuracy and precision.

    How Electrons Move in a Catastrophe

    How Electrons Move in a Catastrophe

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) is a widely applicable material, from magnetic tunnel junctions to solid oxide fuel cells. However, when it gets thin, its behavior changes for the worse. The reason why was not known. Now, using two theoretical methods, a team determined what happens.

    When Ions and Molecules Cluster

    When Ions and Molecules Cluster

    How an ion behaves when isolated within an analytical instrument can differ from how it behaves in the environment. Now, Xue-Bin Wang at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory devised a way to bring ions and molecules together in clusters to better discover their properties and predict their behavior.

    Tune in to Tetrahedral Superstructures

    Tune in to Tetrahedral Superstructures

    Shape affects how the particles fit together and, in turn, the resulting material. For the first time, a team observed the self-assembly of nanoparticles with tetrahedral shapes.

    Tracing Interstellar Dust Back to the Solar System's Formation

    Tracing Interstellar Dust Back to the Solar System's Formation

    This study is the first to confirm dust particles pre-dating the formation of our solar system. Further study of these materials will enable a deeper understanding of the processes that formed and have since altered them.

    Investigating Materials that Can Go the Distance in Fusion Reactors

    Investigating Materials that Can Go the Distance in Fusion Reactors

    Future fusion reactors will require materials that can withstand extreme operating conditions, including being bombarded by high-energy neutrons at high temperatures. Scientists recently irradiated titanium diboride (TiB2) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to better understand the effects of fusion neutrons on performance.

    Better 3-D Imaging of Tumors in the Breast with Less Radiation

    Better 3-D Imaging of Tumors in the Breast with Less Radiation

    In breast cancer screening, an imaging technique based on nuclear medicine is currently being used as a successful secondary screening tool alongside mammography to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Now, a team is hoping to improve this imaging technique.

    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Microbes are Metabolic Specialists

    Scientists can use genetic information to measure if microbes in the environment can perform specific ecological roles. Researchers recently analyzed the genomes of over 6,000 microbial species.


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