Newswise — SCHAUMBURG, Ill. (April 12, 2016) — Ever wonder what causes corns and calluses? According to dermatologists from the American Academy of Dermatology, these hard, thickened areas of skin form as a result of friction or pressure on the skin. In fact, they say, corns and calluses develop naturally to help protect the skin underneath them.

“Calluses can develop anywhere on the body where there is repeated friction, such as a guitar player’s fingertips or a mechanic’s palms,” said board-certified dermatologist Nada Elbuluk, MD, FAAD, assistant professor of dermatology, NYU Langone Medical Center. “Corns typically develop on the tops and sides of the toes and on the balls of the feet, and common causes are arthritis or poorly-fitting shoes.”

Sometimes, said Dr. Elbuluk, corns and calluses on the feet are mistaken for plantar warts, as they can look similar to the untrained eye. However, she said, if you look closely, you’ll notice that plantar warts have tiny black dots within them. These dots are actually small blood vessels. In addition, she said, plantar warts are typically more painful when pressure is applied to the sides of the warts, and corns and calluses are more painful under direct pressure.

To treat corns and calluses, Dr. Elbuluk recommends the following tips:

1. Soak the corn or callus in warm water: Do this for about five to 10 minutes or until the skin softens.2. File the corn or callus with a pumice stone: First dip the pumice stone in warm water, and then use the stone to gently file the corn or callus. Use circular or sideways motions to remove dead skin. 3. Be careful not to take off too much skin: Doing so could cause bleeding and infection. 4. Apply moisturizing lotion or cream to the area daily: Look for a moisturizing lotion or cream with salicylic acid, ammonium lactate, or urea. These ingredients will help gradually soften hard corns and calluses. 5. Use padding: To protect calluses from further irritation during activity, cut a piece of moleskin – available at your local drugstore – into two half-moon shapes and place around the callus. To prevent a corn from making contact with your shoe, surround the corn with donut-shaped adhesive pads – also available at drugstores. 6. Wear shoes that properly fit: A common cause of corns is a shoe that isn’t the right size and shape for your foot. To get the right fit, shop for shoes at the end of the day, when your feet may be slightly swollen. In addition, ask a clerk to measure your foot, and choose shoes that aren’t too loose or tight. 7. Keep your toenails trimmed: Toenails that are too long can force the toes to push up against your shoe, causing a corn to form over time. To remove this pressure, keep your toenails trimmed.

“Most corns and calluses gradually go away when the friction or pressure causing them stops,” said Dr. Elbuluk. “If you aren’t sure what is causing your corn or callus, if the hardened skin is very painful, if you have diabetes, or if you think you have warts, see a board-certified dermatologist or a podiatrist or orthopedist.”

These tips are demonstrated in “How to Treat Corns and Calluses,” a video posted to the AAD website and YouTube channel. This video is part of the AAD’s “Video of the Month” series, which offers tips people can use to properly care for their skin, hair and nails. A new video in the series posts to the AAD website and YouTube channel each month.

Headquartered in Schaumburg, Ill., the American Academy of Dermatology, founded in 1938, is the largest, most influential, and most representative of all dermatologic associations. With a membership of more than 18,000 physicians worldwide, the AAD is committed to: advancing the diagnosis and medical, surgical and cosmetic treatment of the skin, hair and nails; advocating high standards in clinical practice, education, and research in dermatology; and supporting and enhancing patient care for a lifetime of healthier skin, hair and nails. For more information, contact the AAD at 1-888-462-DERM (3376) or Follow the AAD on Facebook (American Academy of Dermatology), Twitter (@AADskin), or YouTube (AcademyofDermatology).