The DOE Science News Source is a Newswise initiative to promote research news from the Office of Science of the DOE to the public and news media.

Cooling Fusion Plasmas from the Inside Out

New simulations show diamond shells can cool plasmas more efficiently and prevent runaway electrons

The Science

Creating a 150-million-degree plasma where hydrogen atoms fuse and release energy is a difficult undertaking. Cooling that plasma in an orderly and controllable fashion is also difficult. Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility are studying a new method that uses boron-filled diamond shells to quickly cool fusion plasmas. Early experimental results and computer modeling indicate this method could avoid problems with traditional cooling approaches. In computer simulations, the new approach also shows promise for addressing a longstanding challenge for fusion tokamaks. That challenge is the damaging bursts of electrons that can occur when fusion plasmas are quickly cooled.

The Impact

Future fusion reactors will have very high power densities and will need to operate for long periods. Given these characteristics, reactor operators will need the ability to cool a fusion plasma—known as quenching—in an orderly fashion that does not damage the tokamak and that allows the reactor to restart quickly. For more than a year, researchers have been studying a technique of injecting diamond shells into the heart of a plasma at hundreds of miles per hour. As it is injected, the diamond burns away and releases a payload of boron. This boron then cools the plasma. Recent complex computer modeling has increased researchers’ understanding of how this technique works and identified unexpected benefits. These benefits may make the new technique particularly appealing for future fusion reactors.

Summary

Quenching is traditionally done by injecting a large quantity of a gas or a cryogenically frozen solid into the edge of the plasma, cooling the plasma from the outside in. As this material moves through nested layers in the plasma—known as flux surfaces—it destroys them like peeling away layers of an onion. This action consequently releases the heat confined in each layer outward. The new diamond shell approach reverses the process by cooling the inner layers first, so that the released heat is still trapped by the outer layers as it is converted to light. The diamond shell ablates slowly as it passes through the edge of the plasma and then breaks open in the center to release the larger quantity of boron, initiating the quench internally.

New simulations show that both the total amount of ablated carbon from the diamond shell and the location at which the shell breaks open determine whether the outer flux surfaces survive while the center of the plasma cools. Under the right conditions, the outer edge of the torus continues to confine heat until nearly all the heat in the center is converted, thereby protecting the outer walls. The simulations also show this type of quench has the unexpected benefit of preventing electrons from being accelerated to nearly light speed. These particles, known as runaway electrons, can strike the inside of the tokamak, damaging the walls and sensitive equipment.

 

Funding

This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science Fusion Energy Sciences program.

SEE ORIGINAL STUDY

X
X
X


Filters close
Newswise: Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLAC and Stanford scientists took a unique and detailed nanoscale look at how oxygen seeps out of lithium-ion battery electrodes, sapping their energy over time. The results could suggest a fix.

Newswise: Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Meant to foster innovation, the Department of Energy Office of Science’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program has supported the development of a number of technologies, including the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing process.

Newswise: Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Released: 11-Jun-2021 2:35 PM EDT
Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Creating an efficient fusion plasma in a tokamak requires a plasma with an extremely hot core but edges cool enough to protect the tokomak walls. Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility developed a solution that uses the active injection of gases to cool the edge coupled with enhanced core confinement.

Newswise: Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

The big holes in Swiss cheese help make it a tasty treat. Now, scientists at PPPL are adding tiny, Swiss-cheese-type holes to components to improve the process of bringing to Earth the fusion energy that powers the sun and stars.

Newswise: The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Department of Energy, Office of Science

: The soil surrounding and including the roots of plants is a hotspot for bacteria that help plants resist infections, survive drought, and take up nutrients. However, scientists did not fully understand how bacteria assist plants. A new study provides new insights into the spots on roots where bacteria attach. This could help scientists understand and control how plants and bacteria interact.

Newswise: Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Released: 11-Jun-2021 9:15 AM EDT
Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Ruomei Gao—an associate professor at SUNY College at Old Westbury—has been using facilities at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven Lab to investigate two primary processes of photosensitization for cancer therapy and prevention.

Released: 10-Jun-2021 1:50 PM EDT
Department of Energy Announces $3.5 Million for U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research in High Energy Physics
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $3.5 million for 23 collaborative research projects in high energy physics that involve substantial collaboration with Japanese investigators.

Newswise: Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:35 AM EDT
Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Department of Energy, Office of Science

As the Deputy Group Leader of the Nuclear Data and Theory Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sofia Quaglioni is contributing to a unified understanding of the structure and lower-energy reactions of light nuclei.

Newswise: Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:05 AM EDT
Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

PNNL’s Framework for Assessment of Complex Environmental Tradeoffs (FACET) is designed to navigate and rigorously evaluate competing environmental, economic, and social impacts to help make decisions more equitable. In an example scenario prepared using publicly available data, FACET was applied to predict tradeoffs facing the Colorado River and to balance competing demands of river flow and temperature, along with withdrawals for cities, crop irrigation, and power generation.

Newswise:Video Embedded doe-scientists-deploy-creativity-speed-to-disrupt-covid-19
VIDEO
Released: 10-Jun-2021 9:00 AM EDT
DOE scientists deploy creativity, speed to disrupt COVID-19
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

An ORNL-led team comprising researchers from multiple DOE national laboratories is using artificial intelligence and computational screening techniques – in combination with experimental validation – to identify and design five promising drug therapy approaches to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

View More
Newswise: Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLAC and Stanford scientists took a unique and detailed nanoscale look at how oxygen seeps out of lithium-ion battery electrodes, sapping their energy over time. The results could suggest a fix.

Newswise: Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Meant to foster innovation, the Department of Energy Office of Science’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program has supported the development of a number of technologies, including the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing process.

Newswise: Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Released: 11-Jun-2021 2:35 PM EDT
Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Creating an efficient fusion plasma in a tokamak requires a plasma with an extremely hot core but edges cool enough to protect the tokomak walls. Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility developed a solution that uses the active injection of gases to cool the edge coupled with enhanced core confinement.

Newswise: Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

The big holes in Swiss cheese help make it a tasty treat. Now, scientists at PPPL are adding tiny, Swiss-cheese-type holes to components to improve the process of bringing to Earth the fusion energy that powers the sun and stars.

Newswise: The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Department of Energy, Office of Science

: The soil surrounding and including the roots of plants is a hotspot for bacteria that help plants resist infections, survive drought, and take up nutrients. However, scientists did not fully understand how bacteria assist plants. A new study provides new insights into the spots on roots where bacteria attach. This could help scientists understand and control how plants and bacteria interact.

Newswise: Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Released: 11-Jun-2021 9:15 AM EDT
Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Ruomei Gao—an associate professor at SUNY College at Old Westbury—has been using facilities at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven Lab to investigate two primary processes of photosensitization for cancer therapy and prevention.

Released: 10-Jun-2021 1:50 PM EDT
Department of Energy Announces $3.5 Million for U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research in High Energy Physics
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $3.5 million for 23 collaborative research projects in high energy physics that involve substantial collaboration with Japanese investigators.

Newswise: Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:35 AM EDT
Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Department of Energy, Office of Science

As the Deputy Group Leader of the Nuclear Data and Theory Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sofia Quaglioni is contributing to a unified understanding of the structure and lower-energy reactions of light nuclei.

Newswise: Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:05 AM EDT
Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

PNNL’s Framework for Assessment of Complex Environmental Tradeoffs (FACET) is designed to navigate and rigorously evaluate competing environmental, economic, and social impacts to help make decisions more equitable. In an example scenario prepared using publicly available data, FACET was applied to predict tradeoffs facing the Colorado River and to balance competing demands of river flow and temperature, along with withdrawals for cities, crop irrigation, and power generation.

Newswise:Video Embedded doe-scientists-deploy-creativity-speed-to-disrupt-covid-19
VIDEO
Released: 10-Jun-2021 9:00 AM EDT
DOE scientists deploy creativity, speed to disrupt COVID-19
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

An ORNL-led team comprising researchers from multiple DOE national laboratories is using artificial intelligence and computational screening techniques – in combination with experimental validation – to identify and design five promising drug therapy approaches to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

View More
Newswise: Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Scientists Discover How Oxygen Loss Saps a Lithium-ion Battery’s Voltage
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLAC and Stanford scientists took a unique and detailed nanoscale look at how oxygen seeps out of lithium-ion battery electrodes, sapping their energy over time. The results could suggest a fix.

Newswise: Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Released: 14-Jun-2021 12:05 PM EDT
Breaking Through with Laboratory Directed Research and Development
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Meant to foster innovation, the Department of Energy Office of Science’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program has supported the development of a number of technologies, including the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing process.

Newswise: Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Released: 11-Jun-2021 2:35 PM EDT
Hot Core and Cool Walls Lead to Better Fusion Containment
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Creating an efficient fusion plasma in a tokamak requires a plasma with an extremely hot core but edges cool enough to protect the tokomak walls. Researchers at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility developed a solution that uses the active injection of gases to cool the edge coupled with enhanced core confinement.

Newswise: Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
Swiss-cheese Design Could Help Scientists Harness the Power of the Sun
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

The big holes in Swiss cheese help make it a tasty treat. Now, scientists at PPPL are adding tiny, Swiss-cheese-type holes to components to improve the process of bringing to Earth the fusion energy that powers the sun and stars.

Newswise: The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Released: 11-Jun-2021 12:10 PM EDT
The Inner Workings of the Root Microbiome
Department of Energy, Office of Science

: The soil surrounding and including the roots of plants is a hotspot for bacteria that help plants resist infections, survive drought, and take up nutrients. However, scientists did not fully understand how bacteria assist plants. A new study provides new insights into the spots on roots where bacteria attach. This could help scientists understand and control how plants and bacteria interact.

Newswise: Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Released: 11-Jun-2021 9:15 AM EDT
Capturing the Chemistry of Light-Activated Cancer Drugs with Ruomei Gao
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Ruomei Gao—an associate professor at SUNY College at Old Westbury—has been using facilities at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven Lab to investigate two primary processes of photosensitization for cancer therapy and prevention.

Released: 10-Jun-2021 1:50 PM EDT
Department of Energy Announces $3.5 Million for U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research in High Energy Physics
Department of Energy, Office of Science

Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $3.5 million for 23 collaborative research projects in high energy physics that involve substantial collaboration with Japanese investigators.

Newswise: Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:35 AM EDT
Sofia Quaglioni: Then and Now / 2011 Early Career Award Winner
Department of Energy, Office of Science

As the Deputy Group Leader of the Nuclear Data and Theory Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sofia Quaglioni is contributing to a unified understanding of the structure and lower-energy reactions of light nuclei.

Newswise: Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Released: 10-Jun-2021 11:05 AM EDT
Decisions, Decisions: Climate Change and Water
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

PNNL’s Framework for Assessment of Complex Environmental Tradeoffs (FACET) is designed to navigate and rigorously evaluate competing environmental, economic, and social impacts to help make decisions more equitable. In an example scenario prepared using publicly available data, FACET was applied to predict tradeoffs facing the Colorado River and to balance competing demands of river flow and temperature, along with withdrawals for cities, crop irrigation, and power generation.

Newswise:Video Embedded doe-scientists-deploy-creativity-speed-to-disrupt-covid-19
VIDEO
Released: 10-Jun-2021 9:00 AM EDT
DOE scientists deploy creativity, speed to disrupt COVID-19
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

An ORNL-led team comprising researchers from multiple DOE national laboratories is using artificial intelligence and computational screening techniques – in combination with experimental validation – to identify and design five promising drug therapy approaches to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

View More

Spotlight

ORNL partners on science kits for STEM schools
Mon, 17 May 2021 17:05:21 EST

ORNL partners on science kits for STEM schools

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Graduate students gather virtually for summer school at PPPL
Mon, 05 Oct 2020 15:45:57 EST

Graduate students gather virtually for summer school at PPPL

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Virtual internships for physics students present challenges, build community
Tue, 15 Sep 2020 15:35:30 EST

Virtual internships for physics students present challenges, build community

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Blocking the COVID-19 Virus's Exit Strategy
Mon, 31 Aug 2020 15:05:12 EST

Blocking the COVID-19 Virus's Exit Strategy

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Summer Students Tackle COVID-19
Mon, 31 Aug 2020 14:35:39 EST

Summer Students Tackle COVID-19

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Graduate student at PPPL Ian Ochs wins top Princeton University fellowship
Fri, 17 Apr 2020 16:25:17 EST

Graduate student at PPPL Ian Ochs wins top Princeton University fellowship

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Barbara Garcia: A first-generation college student spends summer doing research at PPPL
Tue, 24 Sep 2019 15:05:51 EST

Barbara Garcia: A first-generation college student spends summer doing research at PPPL

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Argonne organization’s scholarship fund blazes STEM pathway
Tue, 17 Sep 2019 16:05:11 EST

Argonne organization’s scholarship fund blazes STEM pathway

Argonne National Laboratory

Brookhaven Lab, Suffolk Girl Scouts Launch Patch Program
Fri, 13 Sep 2019 10:30:34 EST

Brookhaven Lab, Suffolk Girl Scouts Launch Patch Program

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven Lab Celebrates the Bright Future of its 2019 Interns
Fri, 30 Aug 2019 09:00:26 EST

Brookhaven Lab Celebrates the Bright Future of its 2019 Interns

Brookhaven National Laboratory

PPPL apprenticeship program offers young people chance to earn while they learn high-tech careers
Thu, 01 Aug 2019 11:05:23 EST

PPPL apprenticeship program offers young people chance to earn while they learn high-tech careers

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Creating a diverse pipeline
Fri, 19 Jul 2019 12:05:33 EST

Creating a diverse pipeline

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab
Mon, 08 Jul 2019 14:00:16 EST

JSA Awards Graduate Fellowships for Research at Jefferson Lab

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

ILSAMP Symposium showcases benefits for diverse students, STEM pipeline
Mon, 20 May 2019 11:05:42 EST

ILSAMP Symposium showcases benefits for diverse students, STEM pipeline

Argonne National Laboratory

Integrating Scientific Computing into Science Curricula
Mon, 13 May 2019 10:05:46 EST

Integrating Scientific Computing into Science Curricula

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Students from Minnesota and Massachusetts Win DOE’s 29th National Science Bowl®
Mon, 29 Apr 2019 13:05:21 EST

Students from Minnesota and Massachusetts Win DOE’s 29th National Science Bowl®

Department of Energy, Office of Science

Young Women’s Conference in STEM seeks to change the statistics one girl at a time
Thu, 28 Mar 2019 14:05:07 EST

Young Women’s Conference in STEM seeks to change the statistics one girl at a time

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Students team with Argonne scientists and engineers to learn about STEM careers
Tue, 12 Mar 2019 16:05:09 EST

Students team with Argonne scientists and engineers to learn about STEM careers

Argonne National Laboratory

Lynbrook High wins 2019 SLAC Regional Science Bowl competition
Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:05:35 EST

Lynbrook High wins 2019 SLAC Regional Science Bowl competition

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Equipping the next generation for a technological revolution
Thu, 24 Jan 2019 13:05:29 EST

Equipping the next generation for a technological revolution

Argonne National Laboratory

Chemistry intern inspired by Argonne’s real-world science
Fri, 18 Jan 2019 17:05:40 EST

Chemistry intern inspired by Argonne’s real-world science

Argonne National Laboratory

Chasing a supernova
Fri, 18 Jan 2019 16:05:20 EST

Chasing a supernova

Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne intern streamlines the beamline
Tue, 08 Jan 2019 14:05:01 EST

Argonne intern streamlines the beamline

Argonne National Laboratory

Research on Light-Matter Interaction Could Lead to Improved Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices
Thu, 11 Oct 2018 15:00:00 EST

Research on Light-Matter Interaction Could Lead to Improved Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Innovating Our Energy Future
Wed, 03 Oct 2018 18:05:41 EST

Innovating Our Energy Future

Oregon State University, College of Engineering

Physics graduate student takes her thesis research to a Department of Energy national lab
Tue, 02 Oct 2018 14:05:36 EST

Physics graduate student takes her thesis research to a Department of Energy national lab

University of Alabama at Birmingham

“Model” students enjoy Argonne campus life
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 12:05:48 EST

“Model” students enjoy Argonne campus life

Argonne National Laboratory

Writing Code for a More Skilled and Diverse STEM Workforce
Thu, 06 Sep 2018 12:05:58 EST

Writing Code for a More Skilled and Diverse STEM Workforce

Brookhaven National Laboratory

New graduate student summer school launches at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Tue, 04 Sep 2018 10:30:12 EST

New graduate student summer school launches at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

The Gridlock State
Fri, 31 Aug 2018 17:05:07 EST

The Gridlock State

California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office

Meet Jasmine Hatcher and Trishelle Copeland-Johnson
Fri, 31 Aug 2018 13:05:55 EST

Meet Jasmine Hatcher and Trishelle Copeland-Johnson

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Argonne hosts Modeling, Experimentation and Validation Summer School
Fri, 24 Aug 2018 10:05:27 EST

Argonne hosts Modeling, Experimentation and Validation Summer School

Argonne National Laboratory

Students affected by Hurricane Maria bring their research to SLAC
Wed, 22 Aug 2018 12:05:42 EST

Students affected by Hurricane Maria bring their research to SLAC

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Brookhaven Lab Pays Tribute to 2018 Summer Interns
Wed, 22 Aug 2018 09:05:24 EST

Brookhaven Lab Pays Tribute to 2018 Summer Interns

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Changing How Buildings Are Made
Mon, 20 Aug 2018 11:05:19 EST

Changing How Buildings Are Made

Washington University in St. Louis

CSUMB Selected to Host Architecture at Zero Competition in 2019
Thu, 16 Aug 2018 11:05:02 EST

CSUMB Selected to Host Architecture at Zero Competition in 2019

California State University, Monterey Bay

Department of Energy Invests $64 Million in Advanced Nuclear Technology
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 14:00:00 EST

Department of Energy Invests $64 Million in Advanced Nuclear Technology

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

Professor Miao Yu Named the Priti and Mukesh Chatter ’82 Career Development Professor
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:00:00 EST

Professor Miao Yu Named the Priti and Mukesh Chatter ’82 Career Development Professor

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

2018 RHIC & AGS Annual Users' Meeting: 'Illuminating the QCD Landscape'
Tue, 03 Jul 2018 10:05:10 EST

2018 RHIC & AGS Annual Users' Meeting: 'Illuminating the QCD Landscape'

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Argonne welcomes <em>The Martian</em> author Andy Weir
Fri, 29 Jun 2018 17:05:17 EST

Argonne welcomes The Martian author Andy Weir

Argonne National Laboratory

Creating STEM Knowledge and Innovations to Solve Global Issues Like Water, Food, and Energy
Mon, 18 Jun 2018 08:55:34 EST

Creating STEM Knowledge and Innovations to Solve Global Issues Like Water, Food, and Energy

Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA)

Showing results

0-6 Of 50
close
2.76563